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 Origins of the Prophets and Prophecy  Marks of the Prophets  Major Prophets  Minor Prophets  Origins of the Prophets and Prophecy  Marks of the.

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Presentation on theme: " Origins of the Prophets and Prophecy  Marks of the Prophets  Major Prophets  Minor Prophets  Origins of the Prophets and Prophecy  Marks of the."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Origins of the Prophets and Prophecy  Marks of the Prophets  Major Prophets  Minor Prophets  Origins of the Prophets and Prophecy  Marks of the Prophets  Major Prophets  Minor Prophets Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

3 Prophets and Prophecy 1. The prophet is a special kind of messenger from God 2. Prophets were present through the early and late stages of the Old Testament 3. Moses was God’s first messenger 4. Prophecy became a literary movement as the sayings of selected prophets were gathered and kept 5. “Former prophets” appeared in earlier times while the “latter prophets” later Prophets and Prophecy 1. The prophet is a special kind of messenger from God 2. Prophets were present through the early and late stages of the Old Testament 3. Moses was God’s first messenger 4. Prophecy became a literary movement as the sayings of selected prophets were gathered and kept 5. “Former prophets” appeared in earlier times while the “latter prophets” later Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

4 Major Prophets versus Minor Prophets The difference is related to the length of the book and not the importance of the prophet or his message Major Prophets versus Minor Prophets The difference is related to the length of the book and not the importance of the prophet or his message Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets Major prophets Minor prophets Isaiah Jeremiah Ezekiel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah HaggaiZechariah Malachi

5 Prophecy 1. Prophets received a call from God and felt compelled to leave their former way of life to follow it 2. Ways they received the call to prophecy: voices, dreams, visions, inspiration to share God’s message 3. They often spoke unpopular messages with the rulers 4. In general, the message of the prophets was meant to convert their listeners to God 5. They warned the people to repent of their sins under the penalty of punishment if they failed to do so Prophecy 1. Prophets received a call from God and felt compelled to leave their former way of life to follow it 2. Ways they received the call to prophecy: voices, dreams, visions, inspiration to share God’s message 3. They often spoke unpopular messages with the rulers 4. In general, the message of the prophets was meant to convert their listeners to God 5. They warned the people to repent of their sins under the penalty of punishment if they failed to do so Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

6 Call Narratives of Moses, Isaiah, and Jeremiah Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets 1. The setting is one of mystery / holiness 2. God initiates the call. 3. The person resists. 4. God reassures the person. 5. God sends the person on a mission.

7 Marks of Prophecy 1. Prophets inherited the role of Moses – They usually based their criticism of Israel on the statutes of Moses 2. Prophets were “spiritual warriors” – During the time of the kings, they were “demilitarized judges” or “specially selected messengers of God” 3. Prophets were social revolutionaries – Their religious concern (to serve YHWH and no other gods) was always accompanied by their social and political concerns Marks of Prophecy 1. Prophets inherited the role of Moses – They usually based their criticism of Israel on the statutes of Moses 2. Prophets were “spiritual warriors” – During the time of the kings, they were “demilitarized judges” or “specially selected messengers of God” 3. Prophets were social revolutionaries – Their religious concern (to serve YHWH and no other gods) was always accompanied by their social and political concerns Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

8 Marks of Prophecy 4. Prophets were messengers of God – The prophets almost always spoke in the first person, as if God were speaking, by the use of the “messenger formula” Marks of Prophecy 4. Prophets were messengers of God – The prophets almost always spoke in the first person, as if God were speaking, by the use of the “messenger formula” Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

9 The Book of Isaiah 1. Isaiah is quoted in the New Testament more than any other prophetic book 2. It represents the work of more than one writer, from more than one time: (a) Jer 1–39: details the ministry of the prophet in Jerusalem (b) Jer 40–55: written by an anonymous prophet living during the Babylonian exile; it includes four Servant Songs fulfilled in Christ (c) Jer 56–66: a mixture of poetry and prose that provide a message of hope The Book of Isaiah 1. Isaiah is quoted in the New Testament more than any other prophetic book 2. It represents the work of more than one writer, from more than one time: (a) Jer 1–39: details the ministry of the prophet in Jerusalem (b) Jer 40–55: written by an anonymous prophet living during the Babylonian exile; it includes four Servant Songs fulfilled in Christ (c) Jer 56–66: a mixture of poetry and prose that provide a message of hope Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

10 The Book of Jeremiah 1. Jeremiah remained in Jerusalem through all the events of the siege and exile of the people 2. He preached that Judah was paying a price for its infidelity and the best course of action would be to submit to Babylon so Jerusalem could escape destruction 3. In his Temple Sermon he warns that those who oppress refugees, orphans, or widows to reform their evil ways 4. He suffered personal trauma for being a prophet with an unpopular message The Book of Jeremiah 1. Jeremiah remained in Jerusalem through all the events of the siege and exile of the people 2. He preached that Judah was paying a price for its infidelity and the best course of action would be to submit to Babylon so Jerusalem could escape destruction 3. In his Temple Sermon he warns that those who oppress refugees, orphans, or widows to reform their evil ways 4. He suffered personal trauma for being a prophet with an unpopular message Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

11 The Book of Ezekiel 1. Ezekiel was deported with the first group of exiles in 597 and began his prophecy in Babylon 2. He experienced a series of bizarre visions and actions: (a) Ez 1-24 – warns of Jerusalem’s impending doom (b) Ez – a resurrection of Jerusalem after the exile 4. His visions and actions: (a) the call to prophecy (Ez 1-3) (b) the transport to Jerusalem (Ez 8-11) (c) the valley of dry bones (Ez 37) (d) the restored Israel (Ez 40-48) The Book of Ezekiel 1. Ezekiel was deported with the first group of exiles in 597 and began his prophecy in Babylon 2. He experienced a series of bizarre visions and actions: (a) Ez 1-24 – warns of Jerusalem’s impending doom (b) Ez – a resurrection of Jerusalem after the exile 4. His visions and actions: (a) the call to prophecy (Ez 1-3) (b) the transport to Jerusalem (Ez 8-11) (c) the valley of dry bones (Ez 37) (d) the restored Israel (Ez 40-48) Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

12 The Book of Daniel 1. Although Daniel did not receive the traditional call by God to preach, the Catholic Old Testament includes it with the prophetic books 2. It has three main divisions which include prophecy, history, and apocalyptic literature 3. Apocalyptic literature: (a) Arose in circumstances of Jewish oppression (b) This highly symbolic writing protected the authors as well as the readers from persecution (c) Apocalyptic writing also found in sections of Ezekiel and Zechariah The Book of Daniel 1. Although Daniel did not receive the traditional call by God to preach, the Catholic Old Testament includes it with the prophetic books 2. It has three main divisions which include prophecy, history, and apocalyptic literature 3. Apocalyptic literature: (a) Arose in circumstances of Jewish oppression (b) This highly symbolic writing protected the authors as well as the readers from persecution (c) Apocalyptic writing also found in sections of Ezekiel and Zechariah Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

13 The Minor Prophets 1. The Book of Hosea – Hosea’s controversial marriage symbolizes God’s relationship with Israel; his message is the faithfulness and love of God for his people 2. The Book of Joel – Joel is filled with apocalyptic images and describes the “day of the Lord” which would mark a new beginning when God will pour out his spirit on all humanity 3. The Book of Amos – Amos preached a strong message of social justice, speaking against many of the sins of those living in the northern kingdom and condemning the abuses of the wealthy The Minor Prophets 1. The Book of Hosea – Hosea’s controversial marriage symbolizes God’s relationship with Israel; his message is the faithfulness and love of God for his people 2. The Book of Joel – Joel is filled with apocalyptic images and describes the “day of the Lord” which would mark a new beginning when God will pour out his spirit on all humanity 3. The Book of Amos – Amos preached a strong message of social justice, speaking against many of the sins of those living in the northern kingdom and condemning the abuses of the wealthy Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

14 The Minor Prophets 4. The Book of Obadiah – Obadiah contains a harsh denunciation of the Edomites who had participated in the sack of Jerusalem, and prophesies their destruction and Judah’s restoration 5. The Book of Jonah – A parable about God’s compassion on all people, even non-Jews, in which Jonah represents Israel who sinfully rejected God’s call and listened to their own voices 6. The Book of Micah – Micah warned the people that if they did not return to the Lord and observe the Law, they would be destroyed; writes of a messiah who would come to lead Israel to peace and justice The Minor Prophets 4. The Book of Obadiah – Obadiah contains a harsh denunciation of the Edomites who had participated in the sack of Jerusalem, and prophesies their destruction and Judah’s restoration 5. The Book of Jonah – A parable about God’s compassion on all people, even non-Jews, in which Jonah represents Israel who sinfully rejected God’s call and listened to their own voices 6. The Book of Micah – Micah warned the people that if they did not return to the Lord and observe the Law, they would be destroyed; writes of a messiah who would come to lead Israel to peace and justice Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

15 The Minor Prophets 7. The Book of Nahum – Nahum depicts YHWH as both an avenger who protects his people from their enemies, but also as merciful, who orders the world in his moral goodness 8. The Book of Habakkuk – Habakkuk warned of Judah’s capture by the Babylonians and provided a lyrical reminder of Israel’s past 9. The Book of Zephaniah – Zephaniah’s prophesied a “day of the Lord” that would bring doom, yet in spite of the infidelities, God’s mercy would spare a holy remnant The Minor Prophets 7. The Book of Nahum – Nahum depicts YHWH as both an avenger who protects his people from their enemies, but also as merciful, who orders the world in his moral goodness 8. The Book of Habakkuk – Habakkuk warned of Judah’s capture by the Babylonians and provided a lyrical reminder of Israel’s past 9. The Book of Zephaniah – Zephaniah’s prophesied a “day of the Lord” that would bring doom, yet in spite of the infidelities, God’s mercy would spare a holy remnant Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets

16 The Minor Prophets 10. The Book of Haggai – Haggai sought to encourage the Jews to complete the rebuilding of the Temple 11. The Book of Zechariah – Zechariah too encouraged the completion of the Temple and predicted a messianic age to come 12. The Book of Malachi – The predominant theme is fidelity to God’s covenant and a prophecy about the coming messenger who would announce the day of the Lord The Minor Prophets 10. The Book of Haggai – Haggai sought to encourage the Jews to complete the rebuilding of the Temple 11. The Book of Zechariah – Zechariah too encouraged the completion of the Temple and predicted a messianic age to come 12. The Book of Malachi – The predominant theme is fidelity to God’s covenant and a prophecy about the coming messenger who would announce the day of the Lord Sacred Scripture: A Catholic Study of God’s Word Part 1E The Prophets


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