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Lecture 4: Origin of 911 (II) – Theory of the “ Clash of Civilizations ” 12 th February 2003 (Wednesday)

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 4: Origin of 911 (II) – Theory of the “ Clash of Civilizations ” 12 th February 2003 (Wednesday)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 4: Origin of 911 (II) – Theory of the “ Clash of Civilizations ” 12 th February 2003 (Wednesday)

2 Announcements Powerpoint Uploading Lecture Scripts Examination Format ID Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Short Questions of Final Examination Grading Session & Quota Class Website

3 Reality Three Co-circles of 911 Origins Culture Within Macro Origins: Islamic Fundamentalism Ethics (single-sided) Clash of Civilizations Culture & History American Perspectives Reality

4 Structure of Lecture 4: Intellectual Response towards 911 Samuel Huntington and the Theory of the Clash of Civilizations Credits to the Theory Challenges against the Theory Conclusion: a “ Self-exercising Prophecy ” ?

5 PART I Intellectual Response to 911

6 3 Stages of Intellectual Response Surprised WWIII? Why the American government failed to predict? Surreal Honeymoon of Scholars Sarcastic The Media Preference Criticism towards Samuel Huntington

7 PART II Samuel Huntington and his theory of the “ Clash of Civilizations ”

8 Samuel Huntington (1957-) Albert J Weatherhead III Institute, Harvard University Political Scientist + International Relations “ Clientalism ” of US Local Government and Corporations The “ Third Wave ” of Democratization The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (1993)

9 World Systemic Transformation 1815-1870: Balance of Power System Vs 1870-1914: Bismarkian System Vs 1918-1939: Interwar System

10 World System Transformation II 1945-1991: Bipolar System Vs 1991-: Unipolar System? 1991-: Clash of Civilizations? Michael Roskin and Nicholas Berry: The New World of International Relations. New Jersey: Upper Saddle River, 2002 (5 th Edition).

11 The Major Civilizations Western Civilization Slavic/ Orthodox Civilization Hindu Civilization Islamic Civilization Sinic Civilization Japanese Civilization Latin American Civilization African Civilization Buddhist Civilization

12 Why Clash of Civilizations? Civilization as a “ Covalent Bond ” Historical Conflict between Bonds Why after Cold War? Ideological Bankruptcy/ Revival of Religions Globalization: Politics of Alliance Population and Economic Revolution Decline of Western Civilization  Challengers and the Challenged

13 The World of Huntington

14 Inter-civilizational Relationship Friendly Relationship: Sinic and Africa; Slavic and Hindu Neutral Relationship: Sinic and Latin America Hostile Relationship: Islamic and the West/ Islamic and the Rest?! The Bush Question: Why do they hate us so much? Huntington: “ Islam has bloody borders. ”

15 The Huntingtonian Concept of “ Fault Lines ” Fault lines = borders between different civilizations that are likely to clash Sinic Vs Hindu Civilization: The Tibetan Plateau Sinic Vs Western Civilization: Hong Kong?! Western Vs Islamic Civilization: Where? Geographical Fault Line? Invisible Fault Line = 911?

16 WWIII (2010) of Huntington USA withdrew army from East Asia Taiwan accepted PRC authority Fault Line: South China Sea Oil Sea China Vs Vietnam (pro-Western) ….  Vs

17 PART III Credits to the Theory

18 Rule of Sameness (I) Islamic Vs Western: Palestine (and the Arabic World) Vs Israel Islamic Vs Slavic: Chechenya Vs Russia Bosnian Muslims/ Kosovan Muslims Vs Yugoslavian Serbs

19 Rule of Sameness (II) Islamic Vs Hindu: Pakistan Vs India Islamic Vs Sinic: “ East Turkestan ” in Xinjiang Vs China Revival of Rightist Movement in Europe Le Pen Vs Muslims (France) 911 – the Modus Operandi?

20 PART IV Challenges against the Theory

21 Assigned Readings Main Text: Chris Brown: “ Narratives of Religion, Civilization and Modernity ” (B&D P.293-302) Supplementary Text: Samuel Huntington. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. London: Simon and Schuster, 2002 (reprint).

22 The Rule of Differences: Counter-examples (I) Islamic Not Vs Western: USA Vs Internal Muslim Associations after Malcolm X Islamic Not Vs Slavic Russia Vs Central Asian Republics (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan)

23 Counter-examples (II) Islamic Not Vs Hindu: India Vs Bangladesh Islamic Not Vs Africa: Organization of African Unity The Many Neglected Cases: Clash Within Civilizations? Hinduism Vs Sikhism

24 Social Science “ Theories ” Science Theories Social Science Theories Hypothesis  Theory  Law  Model What step(s) is(are) missing? Against Over-generalization The Egg and Chicken Analogy

25 Conclusion – the “ Self-Exercising Prophecy ” ?

26 Huntington Says: 911 is an example of the Clash of Civilizations between Islamic and Western Not single in history More “ Islamic against the Rest ” to come Current issues in Russia, India, Palestine, Indonesia, etc … can prove his theory

27 Simon Says: The Clash of Civilization is an Over- generalization Why 911 was not organized by other clashing civilizations against the Western, e.g. China? Why is globalization still progressing? Why are there increasing multi-ethnic countries? 911 symbolizes the hatred between Muslims and Americans  But can ’ t symbolize a total hatred between civilizations

28 The “ Self-exercising Prophecy ” Self-exercising Prophecy: Story of Evil Cults World Leaders towards the Clash of Civilizations Theory “ Trouble-makers ” towards the Clash of Civilizations Theory Huntington as an Intellectual, Politician, Business, Prophet, or “ Self-exercising Prophet ” ?

29 “ To play the adult ’ s game, To take the adult ’ s responsibility ” – Nicholas Tze Thank you for attending ~~The End~~

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