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Types of territoriality State Ethnic Religious Racial Fears of “Balkanization” (splitting state) But common defiance of outsiders.

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Presentation on theme: "Types of territoriality State Ethnic Religious Racial Fears of “Balkanization” (splitting state) But common defiance of outsiders."— Presentation transcript:

1 Types of territoriality State Ethnic Religious Racial Fears of “Balkanization” (splitting state) But common defiance of outsiders

2 Pan-isms (Uniting same group from different states) Ethnic:Pan-Arab, Pan-Kurdish Religious:Pan-Islamic Racial:Pan-African States:Pan-American

3 Kurds Ethnic group in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria. Many Kurds for state of Kurdistan. States pit Kurds against each other

4 Iraq Ethnic: Arabs vs. Kurds Religion: Sunnis vs. Shi’as Rulers are Sunni Arab

5 IRAN (Shi’a Persian) vs. IRAQ (Sunni Arab) Yet Iraqi Shi’as fought for Iraq, Iranian Arabs fought for Iran (State territoriality won) Iran-Iraq War, Iranians Iraqis

6 ARMENIA (Christian) vs. AZERBAIJAN (Shi’a Mulsim) Yet Shi’a Iran stayed neutral, fearing ethnic Azeris in NW Iran (Ethnic territoriality won) Armenia-Azerbaijan War, Armenian (above) and Azeri views

7 Kashmir conflict (CHINA) INDIA PAKISTAN CHINA KASHMIR INDIA (Hindu) vs. PAKISTAN (Muslim) British India partitioned into two states, Kashmir had Muslim majority but Hindu ruler. Wars split Kashmir between India, Pakistan, and China (all now have nukes) Indian and Pakistani propaganda maps

8 Nile River Mediterranean Sea

9 British Palestine Arab ethnic majority Jewish religious minority grew in 1940s

10 UN Partition Plan, 1948 Jewish State (Israel) Arab State (Palestine) International Zone (Jerusalem)

11 Israeli Jews vs. Palestinians. other Arabs

12 Israeli Settlements and Palestinian towns in the West Bank, 2000 Israeli settlers see as historic Jewish homeland Palestinians compare illegal settlements to Apartheid

13 Israel Zionism: Jewish (religious) territoriality Israelis are multiethnic European, Middle Eastern, Newer Russian, Ethiopian immigrants Arab Israeli minority

14 Palestinians (in West Bank and Gaza Strip) Arab (ethnic) territoriality Palestinians are multireligious Muslims and Christians Ethnic nationalist movement, but some newer Muslim groups

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16 Water & Israel’s border

17 Palestinian autonomy, 2000 Gradual turnover of Israeli- Occupied areas to Palestinians for “Two-State Solution” Plan collapsing as killings increase

18 Wall, Barrier or New Border? Israelis: “Security Barrier” to keep bombers out of Israel. Palestinians: “ Wall” isolates villages, cuts water access

19 Jerusalem: Holy City to Jews, Muslims, and Christians

20 Jerusalem West (Israeli); East (Arab) with Israeli settlements

21 Palestinian and Israeli propaganda maps Palestinian map without Israel Israeli map lumping together Arab states; depicting tiny defenseless Israel

22 Cold War propaganda map: “Red menace”

23 View of Communist “Red Bloc” during Cold War Lumping failed to recognize differences among Communists, or local causes of conflict

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25 Samuel Huntington theory of Western, Islamic, Slavic, etc. “blocs” in conflict with each other. “Clash of Civilizations” theory

26 Fails to recognize differences within each “bloc.” Most sources of conflict are local (often ethnic), not religious. Often blames the victim for the conflict. The West shares responsibility for conflicts (military aid arms both sides) “Clash of Civilizations” theory

27 Lumping Arabs or Muslims after Sept. 11

28 How Many Americans View the World

29 Cartoon: Bush’s View of the World Problem: some former allies later seen as “evil”

30 GEOPOLITICSGEOPOLITICS State’s power to control territory, shape international policy and other states’ foreign policy State’s power to control territory, shape international policy and other states’ foreign policy

31 Growth of Russian Empire

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34 African colonies

35 Decolonization, 1940s-1990s

36 Divide-and-conquer Ethnic nations split between and within colonial empires (British, French, Russian) But “clean” ethnic boundaries also not possible Berlin Conference divides map of Africa, 1884

37 Mackinder’s Heartland Theory (Whoever controls Pivot Area can control the world) The “Great Game” between Britain and Russia, 1800s-1900s

38 Enlargement of Soviet bloc after World War II Berlin Wall,

39 NATO and Warsaw Pact,

40 Changes in Europe,

41 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 2002 Kosovo military zones

42 European Union Began as European Economic Community (EEC), Stronger in new members to join, 2004 euro

43 United Nations member states Switzerland 2002

44 Other international alliances


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