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The 8 Stages of Genocide. Stage 1. Classification Cultures have categories that distinguish “us and them” by – Ethnicity – Race – Religion Ex. German.

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Presentation on theme: "The 8 Stages of Genocide. Stage 1. Classification Cultures have categories that distinguish “us and them” by – Ethnicity – Race – Religion Ex. German."— Presentation transcript:

1 The 8 Stages of Genocide

2 Stage 1. Classification Cultures have categories that distinguish “us and them” by – Ethnicity – Race – Religion Ex. German or Jew, Hutu or Tutsi

3 Classification cont. Bipolar societies lacking mixed categories are most likely to have genocide – Ex. Rwanda

4 Classification Prevention Develop universalistic institutions transcending ethnic or racial divisions – Actively promote Tolerance Understanding Promote classifications that transcend divisions

5 Stage 2. Symbolism Giving names or symbols to classifications – Ex. Jews, Gypsies Names and symbols distinguish by colors or clothing – Does not directly result in genocide unless taken to next level When combined with hatred – Symbols forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups Ex. Yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule

6 Symbolism Prevention Hate symbols and speech can be legally forbidden – Ex. Swastikas Group markings can be outlawed – Ex. Gang clothing, Tribal scarring ↘ Legal limitations will fail if unsupported by popular culture enforcement

7 Stage 3. Dehumanization One group denying the humanity of another group – Ex. “Cockroaches” Overcomes normal human revulsion against murder Hate propaganda in media used to vilify the victim group

8 Dehumanization Prevention Incitement to genocide should not be confused with protected speech – Genocidal societies lack constitutional protection for countervailing speech Should be treated differently than democracies Local and international leaders condemn use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable

9 Dehumanization Prevention cont. Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have foreign finances frozen Hate radio and propaganda should be banned Hate crimes and atrocities should be punished

10 Stage 4. Organization Genocide always organized by the state using militias – Provides deniability of state responsibility Ex. Janjaweed in Darfur Organization – Informally Ex. Hindu mobs led by local RSS militants – Decentralized Terrorist groups

11 Organization cont. Special army units or militants trained and armed Genocidal killing plans made

12 Organization Prevention Membership in militias should be outlawed Leaders should be denied international visas U.N. should impose arms embargoes on governments and countries involved in genocide Create commissions to investigate violations – Ex. Post-genocidal sanctions in Rwanda

13 Stage 5. Polarization Extremists drive groups apart Hate groups broadcasting polarizing propaganda Laws created – Ex. Forbidding intermarriage, forbidding social interaction Extremists target moderates – Intimidate and silence centers Moderates from groups are most able to stop genocide – First to be arrested and killed

14 Polarization Prevention Security protection for moderate leaders Assistance to human rights groups Seizure of assets of extremists International visas for extremists denied Coup d'état (overthrow) by extremists opposed – By international sanctions

15 Stage 6. Preparation Identification and separation of victims because of: – Ethnic identity – Religious identity Death list created Victims forced to wear identification symbol – Ex. Serial number for Jews

16 Preparation cont. Victims segregated into ghettos Deported to concentration camps Confined to famine-struck region – starved

17 Prevention of Genocidal Preparation If regional alliances or U.N. security can be mobilized: – Genocide Emergency must be declared – Armed international intervention should be prepared – Heavy assistance provided to victim group – Humanitarian assistance organized by U.N. – Private relief groups for refugees

18 Stage 7. Extermination Quickly becomes a killing legally called “Genocide” Called extermination to killers – Do not believe their victims are fully human Sponsored by the state – Armed forces work with militias to do the killing

19 Extermination cont. Genocide can result in revenge killings by groups against each other – Downward whirl-pool cycle of bilateral genocide Ex. Burundi Only rapid armed intervention can stop genocide at this point

20 Extermination Prevention Real safe areas and refugee camps should be established – Heavily armed international protection Small genocides – U.N. Security Council should authorize The U.N. Standing High Readiness Brigade EU Rapid Response Force Regional forces

21 Extermination Prevention cont. Larger interventions – Multilateral force authorized by the U.N. should intervene Regional alliances should act if U.N. cannot If strong nations will not provide troops, they should send – Airlift – Equipment – Financial help

22 Stage 8. Denial Surest indicator of genocidal massacre Perpetrators of genocide – Dig up mass graves – Burn bodies – Try to cover up evidence – Try to intimidate witnesses

23 Denial cont. Genocidal perpetrators deny committing crime – Blaming what happened on the victims Block investigation of crimes Continue to govern until forced to give up power – Flee into exile Remain there with impunity until captured and tribunal is established – Ex. Pol Pot, Idi Amin

24 Response to Denial Punishment by an international tribunal or national court – Evidence is heard – Perpetrator is punished


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