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What is a Genocide?. Genocide The term genocide was first used in 1944, although the crime itself has been committed often in history. The term genocide.

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Presentation on theme: "What is a Genocide?. Genocide The term genocide was first used in 1944, although the crime itself has been committed often in history. The term genocide."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is a Genocide?

2 Genocide The term genocide was first used in 1944, although the crime itself has been committed often in history. The term genocide was first used in 1944, although the crime itself has been committed often in history. It was initially used to describe the systematic campaign for the extermination of peoples carried on by Nazi Germany, in its attempts in the 1930s and 40s to destroy the entire European Jewish community, and to eliminate other national groups in Eastern Europe. It was initially used to describe the systematic campaign for the extermination of peoples carried on by Nazi Germany, in its attempts in the 1930s and 40s to destroy the entire European Jewish community, and to eliminate other national groups in Eastern Europe. The word genocide comes the words genos (Greek for family, tribe or race) and cide (Latin for killing) The word genocide comes the words genos (Greek for family, tribe or race) and cide (Latin for killing)

3 Genocide Raphael Lemkin first termed the word genocide. Raphael Lemkin first termed the word genocide. Lemkin was a Polish Lawyer fled Poland in 1939 to escape the Nazis. Lemkin was a Polish Lawyer fled Poland in 1939 to escape the Nazis. Lemkin lost 49 family members in the Holocaust. Lemkin lost 49 family members in the Holocaust. After World War Two Lemkin spoke out to the international community to create laws outlawing future genocides. After World War Two Lemkin spoke out to the international community to create laws outlawing future genocides.

4 Genocide Read a portion of Lemkin’s famous writing Read a portion of Lemkin’s famous writing Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation-Analysis of Government- Proposals for Redress Section IX “Genocide”

5 Genocide In 1948 the newly created United Nations came together to decide what was a genocide and how to stop future genocides. In 1948 the newly created United Nations came together to decide what was a genocide and how to stop future genocides. The following was created to define genocides and to stop future genocides. The following was created to define genocides and to stop future genocides.

6 Genocide Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of Genocide The Contracting Parties, The Contracting Parties, Having considered the declaration made by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 96 (I) dated 11 December 1946 that genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world, Recognizing that at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity, and Being convinced that, in order to liberate mankind from such an odious scourge, international co-operation is required,

7 Genocide In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group. (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

8 Genocide The United Nations understood that Genocides had occurred in history and that if future genocides were to stop then their must be international intervention. The United Nations understood that Genocides had occurred in history and that if future genocides were to stop then their must be international intervention.

9 Genocide-8 Stages In 1996 Dr. Gregory H. Stanton the President of Genocide Watch established the 8 Stages of a genocide. In 1996 Dr. Gregory H. Stanton the President of Genocide Watch established the 8 Stages of a genocide.

10 Genocide-8 Stages The are eight accepted stages of a genocide and they are as follows The are eight accepted stages of a genocide and they are as follows 1. Classification 1. Classification 2. Symbolization 2. Symbolization 3. Dehumanization 3. Dehumanization 4. Organization 4. Organization 5. Polarization 5. Polarization 6. Preparation 6. Preparation 7. Extermination 7. Extermination 8. Denial 8. Denial

11 Genocide-8 Stages Dr. Stanton stated that most if not all genocides followed the eight stage path. Dr. Stanton stated that most if not all genocides followed the eight stage path. Dr. Stanton also stated that at each stage a genocide could be stopped. Dr. Stanton also stated that at each stage a genocide could be stopped. Dr. Stanton also concluded that once a genocide starts the later stages must come after the earlier stages, however all stages may continue to operate in conjunction throughout the genocide. Dr. Stanton also concluded that once a genocide starts the later stages must come after the earlier stages, however all stages may continue to operate in conjunction throughout the genocide.

12 Genocide Classification-1 st Stage Classification-1 st Stage Us v. Them mentality Us v. Them mentality People are divided by their race, ethnicity, religion or nationality. People are divided by their race, ethnicity, religion or nationality. Example is Nazi v. Jews Example is Nazi v. Jews This is an early stage of a genocide. This is an early stage of a genocide. Once there is a classification then distinct lines can be drawn and people can be placed in groups to be later removed for the society. Once there is a classification then distinct lines can be drawn and people can be placed in groups to be later removed for the society.

13 Genocide To stop classification To stop classification Promote tolerance of other groups. Promote tolerance of other groups. Outside or neutral organizations like the church/Red Cross/United Nations need to stop divisions. Outside or neutral organizations like the church/Red Cross/United Nations need to stop divisions. Promotion of a common language and fair system of government. Promotion of a common language and fair system of government.

14 Genocide/Holocaust Nuremberg Laws Nuremberg Laws Made Jews second class citizens. Made Jews second class citizens. Classification of/by Jewish ancestry Classification of/by Jewish ancestry

15 Genocide Symbolization-2 nd Stage Symbolization-2 nd Stage Names or symbols are given to people to classify them. Names or symbols are given to people to classify them. As during the Holocaust-Jews or Gypsies. As during the Holocaust-Jews or Gypsies. Distinguish them by colors or dress and apply them to members of groups. Distinguish them by colors or dress and apply them to members of groups. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to dehumanization. Classification and symbolization are universally human and do not necessarily result in genocide unless they lead to dehumanization. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of the groups: When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of the groups: The yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule. The yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule. A blue scarf for people in Cambodia A blue scarf for people in Cambodia

16 Genocide To stop symbolization To stop symbolization Outlaw symbols for groups both the perpetrators and the victims Outlaw symbols for groups both the perpetrators and the victims The Star of David The Star of David The swastika The swastika The Confederate flag? The Confederate flag?

17 Genocide/Holocaust Symbol Symbol Star of David was used to force Jews to be identified. Star of David was used to force Jews to be identified. Name changes from German names to Jewish names. Name changes from German names to Jewish names. Sara Sara Israel Israel

18 Genocide Dehumanization-3 rd Stage Dehumanization-3 rd Stage One group denies the humanity or rights of the other group. One group denies the humanity or rights of the other group. Rights are taken away Rights are taken away Members of it are equated with animals, or a diseases. Members of it are equated with animals, or a diseases. People are seen as less then human People are seen as less then human Words like parasite are used Words like parasite are used Dehumanization of people allows normal people to overcome their fear of murdering humans and allows ordinary people to commit genocide. Dehumanization of people allows normal people to overcome their fear of murdering humans and allows ordinary people to commit genocide.

19 Genocide How to stop Dehumanization How to stop Dehumanization By this stage propaganda and hate speeches are being used. By this stage propaganda and hate speeches are being used. Hate groups must be stopped or outlawed. Hate groups must be stopped or outlawed. Propaganda must stop. Propaganda must stop. Rights must restored to the victims. Rights must restored to the victims.

20 Genocide/The Holocaust Kristallnacht Kristallnacht “Night of Broken Glass” Violence was first used against Jews. Violence was first used against Jews. German propaganda blamed Jews for the violence against them. German propaganda blamed Jews for the violence against them.

21 Genocide Organization-4 th Stage Organization-4 th Stage Plans are developed to rid the country or society of the group. Plans are developed to rid the country or society of the group. Plans are usually developed by the government. Plans are usually developed by the government. The military is used to carry out the killings. The military is used to carry out the killings. Military groups are trained to kill the classified group. Military groups are trained to kill the classified group.

22 Genocide How to stop organization How to stop organization International Peacekeeping organizations must monitor the countries. International Peacekeeping organizations must monitor the countries. Withhold food or military aid to the offending country. Withhold food or military aid to the offending country. Leaders must be held accountable for actions. Leaders must be held accountable for actions. Arms embargos must be placed on the country. Arms embargos must be placed on the country.

23 Genocide/The Holocaust The Final Solution The Final Solution At the Wannsee Conference in 1941 plans were drawn up on how to exterminate the Jews. At the Wannsee Conference in 1941 plans were drawn up on how to exterminate the Jews. The military immediately began to carry out the murders. The military immediately began to carry out the murders.

24 Genocide Polarization-5 th Stage Polarization-5 th Stage Hate groups broadcast propaganda. Hate groups broadcast propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. ( Stop those in government who might speak out against the genocide) Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. ( Stop those in government who might speak out against the genocide)

25 Genocide How to stop polarization How to stop polarization Sanctions should be placed on the country. Sanctions should be placed on the country. Extremist groups should not be allowed to rule or have control of the government. Extremist groups should not be allowed to rule or have control of the government. Peacekeeping forces should be put on alert. Peacekeeping forces should be put on alert.

26 Genocide/The Holocaust Propaganda Propaganda Jews were blamed for the problems of Germany Jews were blamed for the problems of Germany Hitler and the Nazi’s used propaganda to rally the German people against the Jews. Hitler and the Nazi’s used propaganda to rally the German people against the Jews.

27 Genocide Preparation-6 th Stage Preparation-6 th Stage Victims are identified and taken out of society. Victims are identified and taken out of society. They are placed in labor camps, ghettos or concentration camps. They are placed in labor camps, ghettos or concentration camps. They have lost all rights. They have lost all rights. They have no means to speak out or defend themselves. They have no means to speak out or defend themselves. They are forgotten by the general society. They are forgotten by the general society.

28 Genocide How to stop Preparation How to stop Preparation At this point international military aid must be used. At this point international military aid must be used. Victims are now helpless and can not defend themselves. Victims are now helpless and can not defend themselves. The offending government must be stopped. The offending government must be stopped.

29 Genocide/The Holocaust Deportation and the Ghettos Deportation and the Ghettos The Germans rounded up Jews and sent them east to Poland. The Germans rounded up Jews and sent them east to Poland. Jews were confined to ghettos away from society. Jews were confined to ghettos away from society.

30 Genocide Extermination-7 th Stage Extermination-7 th Stage The killing begins quickly and usually in mass. This is when the incident can be called a genocide. The killing begins quickly and usually in mass. This is when the incident can be called a genocide. The victims are seen as less then human by the killers. The victims are seen as less then human by the killers. Armed forces are used to conduct the murders and killing centers (Death camps) or other areas are usually created. Armed forces are used to conduct the murders and killing centers (Death camps) or other areas are usually created.

31 Genocide How to stop extermination How to stop extermination International military intervention is the only possible way to stop the killing. International military intervention is the only possible way to stop the killing. The government must be stopped, the military must be neutralized, and the killing centers closed. The government must be stopped, the military must be neutralized, and the killing centers closed. Refugees must be safely escorted out of the country to a place of safety. Refugees must be safely escorted out of the country to a place of safety.

32 Genocide/The Holocaust Extermination Camps Extermination Camps Auschwitz Auschwitz Belzec Belzec Chelmno Chelmno Sobibor Sobibor Thousands of Jews were murdered everyday. Thousands of Jews were murdered everyday.

33 Genocide Denial-8 th Stage Denial-8 th Stage Denial always follows a genocide. Denial always follows a genocide. It becomes an indicator that a genocide has taken place or might take place again. It becomes an indicator that a genocide has taken place or might take place again. The perpetrators dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence. The perpetrators dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence. They deny that they committed any crimes, and blame the victims. They deny that they committed any crimes, and blame the victims. They continue to govern until driven from power by force and when they flee into exile. They continue to govern until driven from power by force and when they flee into exile.

34 Genocide How to stop denial How to stop denial Punishment for those who planned and committed the genocide. Punishment for those who planned and committed the genocide. International investigations. International investigations. Keep the sites such as the concentration camps as memorials. Keep the sites such as the concentration camps as memorials.

35 Genocide/The Holocaust The Nazi’s burned the bodies of many of their victims. The Nazi’s burned the bodies of many of their victims. Many Germans denied that they knew of concentration camps. Many Germans denied that they knew of concentration camps. Many Nazi’s who planned or conducted the killings were never tried and went free after the war. Many Nazi’s who planned or conducted the killings were never tried and went free after the war.

36 Genocide Take 5 minutes and write down three things learned about today and or questions you have on what is a genocide. Take 5 minutes and write down three things learned about today and or questions you have on what is a genocide.

37 Homework Quiz next class on the eight stages of a genocide and the definition of a genocide. Quiz next class on the eight stages of a genocide and the definition of a genocide. In “Beyond the Melting Pot” Lynell George cites that such things like racial violence and genocides can be stopped by In “Beyond the Melting Pot” Lynell George cites that such things like racial violence and genocides can be stopped by “strong ethnic and racial identities (including homogenous affiliations and friendships) alongside a public participation of multiracial and multiethnic contacts that enriches the public and social sphere of life” “strong ethnic and racial identities (including homogenous affiliations and friendships) alongside a public participation of multiracial and multiethnic contacts that enriches the public and social sphere of life” Explain what George means and come up with four to five ways you could promote multiracial and ethnical tolerance in your community (School) Explain what George means and come up with four to five ways you could promote multiracial and ethnical tolerance in your community (School)


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