2 The majority of the electorate does not vote in most elections. #1 – Considering all elections at all levels of government, which of the following best describes electoral behavior in the United States?Primary elections tend to elicit a higher voter turnout than do general elections.The majority of the electorate does not vote in most elections.Voter turnout plays an insignificant role in election outcomes.Adult citizens under the age of 30 tend to have the highest rate of voter turnout.Voters with strong party identification vote less regularly than do independents.
3 Correct answer to #1 (Voter apathy) The majority of the electorate does not vote in most elections.State and local elections, in particular, have very low turnout. For example, turnout was only 5 percent of registered voters in a recent Dallas mayoral election.
4 The President has the support of the Supreme Court. #2 – In which of the following scenarios would a presidential veto most likely be upheld?The President has the support of the Supreme Court.The President is in a second term, removed from partisan politics.The proposed legislation enjoys widespread bipartisan support.The proposed legislation was originally adopted by a large majority in both houses of Congress.Two-thirds of the representatives and senators are members of the same party as the President.
5 Correct answer to #2 (Upholding a presidential veto) Two-thirds of the representatives and senators are members of the same party as the President.Presidents, especially popular presidents, are often able to garner support from their own party in Congress.
6 Women were more likely than men to vote Democratic. #3 – Which of the following statements about voting patterns is best supported by the table?Women were more likely than men to vote Democratic.People who were young, White, and from the South were most likely to be Perot supporters.Voters with low educational attainment were more likely to vote Republican than Democratic.Voters in the South were more likely to vote Democratic than those in other regions.Nonwhite voters were less likely to support Republican presidential candidates in 1992 than they were in 1980.
7 Correct answer to #3 (Women voters) Women were more likely than men to vote Democratic.This is a “reading the chart”question , but Democratshave a reputation for havingfavorable stances on“women’s issues.” Women makeup 52% of the electorate, soDemocrats have an interest in“turning out” women voters.
8 #4 – The data in the table provide clear evidence that Republicans were increasingly likely to defect from their party’s candidateThe vote in the Midwest predicted the outcome rather consistentlyThe East has become a Republican strongholdVoters under the age of 30 were more likely than older voters to support eh Democratic candidateNonwhite voters showed no preference for one party over another
9 Correct answer to #4 (Voting in the Midwest) The vote in the Midwest predicted the outcome rather consistentlyAnother “reading the chart” question – but understand that this was not true in 2008 or 2012.
10 Prevent states from taxing agencies of the federal government #5 – The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution has been interpreted by the Supreme Court toPrevent states from taxing agencies of the federal governmentReserve powers to the statesRestrict the application of judicial reviewAllow for the burning of the flag as an expression of protestLimit the use of the legislative veto
11 Correct answer to #5 (Tenth Amendment) Reserve powers to the statesAmendment 10 indicates that powers not specifically given to the central government, nor denied to the stated, are retained by the states. We call these “reserved powers.” (Amendment 9 reserves powers to the people.)
12 #6 – Which of the following statements can be supported from information in the table above? Federal grants to states and local governments have increased substantially in total dollar amount since 1950.In 1994 the federal government devoted a larger percentage of outlays to grants than in 1980.Between 1980 and 1990, grants decreased as a percentage of federal outlays.In 1994 states were more dependent on federal grants for revenues than in 1990, 1970, or 1960.IV onlyI and III onlyII and III onlyII and IV onlyI, III, and IV only
13 Correct answer to #6 (Federal grants) I, III, and IV onlyYet another “reading the chart” question – Federal grants have increased substantially, make up a greater percentage of federal outlays, and states have become more dependent on them.
14 #7 – When a lower court decision is appealed to the Supreme Court, which of the following is most likely to occur?The Supreme Court will reconsider the case, and overturn the lower court decision.The Supreme Court will reprimand the lower court judge for improperly deciding the case.The plaintiffs or defendants will file motions for a change of venue.The case will be retried at the lower court level.The Supreme Court will not hear the appeal.
15 Correct answer to #7 (Appeals to the Supreme Court) The Supreme Court will not hear the appeal.Fewer than 1% of the lower court decisions are heard by the U.S. Supreme Court.
16 #8 – Which of the following is true of amicus curiae briefs? They are used by interest groups to lobby courts.They are used exclusively by liberal interest groups.They are used exclusively by conservative interest groups.They are now unconstitutional.They are the means by which a litigant seeks Supreme Court review of a lower court decision.
17 Correct answer to #8 (Amicus curiae briefs) They are used by interest groups to lobby courts.Amicus curiae briefs are the means by which interested parties seek to influence the decision of the court.
18 #9 – The terms “fiscal federalism” and “cooperative federalism” refer to situations in which The federal government completely dominates state and local governments.States are forbidden any activity that has not been specifically approved by the Supreme Court.The federal judiciary uses its power of judicial review to ensure congressional dominance over state legislatures.State, municipal, and local income taxes are pooled by special agreement and redistributed in accordance with individual need.Federal, state, and local governments work together to complete a project, with the federal government providing much of the project funding.
19 Correct answer to #9 (Fiscal/cooperative federalism) Federal, state, and local governments work together to complete a project, with the federal government providing much of the project funding.Cooperative federalism = “marble cake” federalism (federal goals & funding flow through state govt). Dual federalism = “layer cake” federalism (strictly divided areas of responsibility).
20 #10 – Which of the following is a result of the electoral college system? The winner of the presidency often lacks a majority of the popular vote.Candidates focus on one-party states in which they can win most of the electoral votes.The House of Representatives frequently chooses the President from the top three candidates.Candidates focus on the states with the largest populations.Campaign spending increases because candidates emphasize television advertising.
21 Correct answer to #10 (Consequences of Electoral College) Candidates focus on the states with the largest populations.In order to get a majority of the electoral votes (270 in 2012), candidates must appeal to voters in states with the largest populations – or the right combination of smaller swing states.
22 Government Operations #11 – Which of the following committees of the House of Representatives sets the conditions for debate and amendment of most legislation?Ways and MeansAppropriationsJudiciaryRulesGovernment Operations
23 Correct answer to #11 (Congressional Committees) RulesRules = Sets conditions for debate and amendmentWays and Means = Originates all revenue (tax and tariff) billsAppropriations = Distributes money from the Treasury (to meet budget allocations)Judiciary = Has jurisdiction over federal criminal law and holds hearings related to federal court confirmationsGovernment Operations = Responsible for matters relating to elections, government ethics, campaign finance, personnel and property management
24 The commerce clause of the Constitution #12 – Of the following, which has been used most to expand the power of the national government?The commerce clause of the ConstitutionThe habeas corpus clause of the ConstitutionThe bill of attainder clause of the ConstitutionThe First AmendmentThe Fifth Amendment
25 Correct answer to #12 (Commerce clause application) The commerce clause of the ConstitutionThe federal government’s supremacy over interstate commerce has been used to enforce other regulations. For example, the commerce clause was used to justify the Civil Rights Act of The federal government argued that they could desegregate public accommodations – as they impacted interstate trade.
26 #13 – Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the two major political parties in the United States?Parties have no organization except at the national level.Parties are centrally organized to provide a smooth transition from one national campaign to the next.Parties are organized much like a large corporation, in that decisions flow from national to state and local levels.Local and state parties have virtually no power in the party system.Separate and largely independent party organizations exist at national, state, and local levels.
27 Correct answer to #13 (Party Structure) Separate and largely independent party organizations exist at national, state, and local levels.
28 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling Emancipation Proclamation #14 – Following the Civil War, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was designed to overturn theDred Scott decisionPlessy v. Ferguson rulingEmancipation ProclamationCivil Rights Act of 1866Slaughterhouse cases
29 Correct answer to #14 (Original purpose of the 14th Amendment) Dred Scott decisionThe Supreme Court decided in the Dred Scott case that African Americans (slave or free) were not citizens. The 14th Amendment made former slaves citizens, and entitled them to “equal protection under the law.” The equal protection clause has since been applied to a variety of rights movements.
30 #15 – Which of the following best illustrates the point being made in the cartoon above? The influence of presidents on the Supreme Court is limited because the Senate often rejects their nominees.The terms of Supreme Court justices should be reduced from their current forty years.Presidents can have an influence on public policy far beyond their terms of office.The opinions of Supreme Court justices remain very similar over long periods of time.Supreme Court justices seldom issue dissenting opinions.
31 Correct answer to #15 (Supreme Court appointments) Presidents can have an influence on public policy far beyond their terms of office.Because of the lifetime terms of Supreme Court justices, Presidents who are able to appoint new justices have a lasting impact on the decisionmaking of the Supreme Court and therefore on policy that impacts life in the U.S. (In total, Reagan made four appointments to the Supreme Court – including his elevation of Nixon appointee William Rehnquist to the position of Chief Justice.)
32 #16 – The table best supports which of the following statements about party identification and voting behavior?There is no consistent relationship between party identification and voting behavior.People with weak party identification tend to vote for opposing party candidates.Independent-leaning Democrats are unreliable voters for the Democratic party.People who most resist party identification tend to vote for Republican candidates.People with strong Democratic party identification tend to vote for the Democratic party.
33 Correct answer to #16 (Party Identification and Voting Patterns) People with strong Democratic party identification tend to vote for the Democratic party.Again with the “reading the chart” questions? Still, you need to remember that party identification is the strongest indicator of voting patterns.
34 #17 – The table best supports which of the following statements about the two elections for which data are provided?The 1988 and 1990 elections were clear victories for the Democratic party.Republican voters exhibited greater party discipline in 1990 than they did in 1988.Independent-leaning Republicans were the Republicans least likely to cross party lines.Pure Independents were less likely to vote for the Democratic presidential candidate in 1988 than for Democratic House candidates in 1990.Weak Democrats were the group most likely to vote for Republican candidates.
35 Correct answer to #17 (Party Identification and Voting Patterns) Pure Independents were less likely to vote for the Democratic presidential candidate in 1988 than for Democratic House candidates in 1990.This is the just a “reading the chart” question.
36 national committee of the President's party civil service #18 – In recent presidential administrations, the principal staff for the President has been made up of members of theWhite House OfficecabinetCongressnational committee of the President's partycivil service
37 Correct answer to #18 (White House staff) White House OfficeThe White House staff has acted as the principal staff for the president. This staff is chosen based on their level of support for the President.
38 #19 – The procedure for formally amending the United States Constitution best illustrates which of the following?The dominance of the national government over the state governmentsThe dominance of the state governments over the national governmentThe Founding Fathers' desire to facilitate rapid constitutional revisionsThe Supreme Court's power to review constitutional amendmentsThe federal structure of the United States government
39 Correct answer to #19 (Federalism) The federal structure of the United States governmentWhile the amendment is written and passed by the federal government (2/3 majority of both houses), three quarters of the states must ratify it.
40 Political activism increases with education levels. #20 – Which of the following best explains why delegates to both the Republican and Democratic Conventions in 1996 were much more likely to have college and postgraduate degrees than was the rest of the voting population?College education increases the likelihood of holding liberal political positions.College education increases the likelihood of holding conservative political positions.Political activism increases with education levels.Education allows people to have more time to attend conventions.Some states required delegates to hold college degrees.
41 Correct answer to #20 (Education and political activism) Political activism increases with education levels.
42 Federal Election Commission #21 – Congressional district boundaries are usually redrawn every ten years by theBureau of the Censusstate legislaturesPresidentHouse Rules CommitteeFederal Election Commission
43 Correct answer to #21 (Redistricting) state legislaturesThis is the plan for redistricting in 34 states. Seven states have only one representative. Others have independent bodies or bipartisan commissions.
44 #22 – The franking privilege refers to the Federal Reserve Board's control over interest ratespractice of permitting senators to preview lists of judicial nomineespractice whereby legislators with the most seniority select the committees on which they want to serveright of the chair to control the schedule of his or her congressional committeeright of members of Congress to send mail to their constituents at the government's expense
45 Correct answer to #22 (Franking privilege) right of members of Congress to send mail to their constituents at the government's expenseThe franking privilege is one factor that supports the incumbency advantage, as senators and representatives are able to utilize the franking privilege to advertise and put their name in front of their constituents.
46 The election was formally decided in the House of Representatives. #23 – Which of the following took place after presidential candidates Truman in 1948, Nixon in 1968, and Clinton in 1992 won only pluralities of the popular vote?The election was formally decided in the House of Representatives.The election was formally decided in the Senate.The winning candidate took office after receiving less than 50% of the popular votes cast.The electoral college votes cast by independents were critical in determining the winner.The results of the popular vote necessitated a runoff.
47 Correct answer to #23 (Plurality election) The winning candidate took office after receiving less than 50% of the popular votes cast.In a plurality election, the person who wins the greatest number of votes takes office – though they did not win a majority.
48 It results in more Democrats being elected to the House. #24 – Which of the following is generally true of the gerrymandering of congressional districts?It results in more Democrats being elected to the House.It results in more Republicans being elected to the House.It guarantees that all minority parties will be equally represented.It creates districts that favor one political party over another.It violates the principle of one-person, one-vote.
49 Correct answer to #24 (Gerrymandering) It creates districts that favor one political party over another.Favoring one party over the other is the purpose of gerrymandering.Massachusetts 1812
50 The supremacy of the national over the state governments #25 – Which of the following is one of the central concerns of the First Amendment?The supremacy of the national over the state governmentsThe right of citizens to bear armsThe division of powers among the three branches of governmentThe right of citizens to petition the government for redress of grievancesThe protection of the rights of those accused of committing a crime
51 Correct answer to #25 (First Amendment rights) The right of citizens to petition the government for redress of grievancesThe 5 rights guaranteed by the First Amendment are:Freedom of SpeechFreedom of ReligionFreedom of PressFreedom of PetitionFreedom of AssemblyMassachusetts 1812
52 #26 – The "wall of separation" doctrine refers to the division between levels of governmentunique powers possessed by each branch of governmentdivision of church and statebarrier between legislative chambersdifferentiation of municipal powers from county powers
53 Correct answer to #26 (Wall of separation) division of church and stateThe term “wall of separation” was coined by Thomas Jefferson, referring to the provision in the First Amendment that states that ‘Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.’Massachusetts 1812
54 #27 – Lobbyists try to influence legislators mainly through "wining and dining" legislatorsorchestrating petition drives and letter-writing campaignsplacing persuasive advertisements in the mediathreatening to help the legislator's opponent in the next electionproviding legislators with information on technical issues
55 Correct answer to #27 (Lobbyists’ role in legislation) providing legislators with information on technical issuesLobbyists are subject matter experts and can provide indepth technical knowledge for legislators writing new laws. Of course, this benefits the lobbyists as well since the legislators author laws related to their cause.Massachusetts 1812
56 #28 – The table above supports which of the following conclusions? A plurality of the people has consistently supported the Democrats.Support for the two major parties increased slightly between 1952 and 1994.The largest percentage increase in political identification between 1952 and 1994 occurred among independents.I onlyII onlyIII onlyI and II onlyI, II, and III
57 Correct answer to #28 (Growing number of independents) III only (The largest percentage increase in political identification between 1952 and 1994 occurred among independents.)In the second half of the twentieth century, voters drifted away from the two major parties. Today approximately 1/3 of all Americans are registered Independents, and a greater number of registered Democrats and Republicans engage in split ticket voting.Massachusetts 1812
58 categorical grants matching grants block grants project grants #29 – States and localities have the most discretion in establishing policy when federal funding is derived fromcategorical grantsmatching grantsblock grantsproject grantsgrants-in-aid
59 Correct answer to #29 (Block grants) Block grants come to state or local governments with minimal guidance as to how they must be spentCategorical grants must be spent on a specific project or category of projects (i.e., building public education facilities)Matching grants require the state or local government to “match” the amount of funds they receiveProject grants may not be spent on anything other than the specified projectGrants-in-aid require that certain conditions must be met in order to receive the money (i.e., “Race to the Top” funding that was tied to adopting national standards and testing for education)Massachusetts 1812
60 Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka Imposition of a federal poll tax #30 – Which of the following best explains the trend depicted in the chart above?Brown v. Board of Education of TopekaImposition of a federal poll taxElimination of all-White primary electionsThe Voting Rights Act of 1965The Civil Rights Act of 1964
61 Correct answer to #30 (Voter registration reform) The Voting Rights Act of 1965The Voting Rights Act of 1965 removed barriers to voter registration for African Americans in the South, leading to a significant rise in the number of registered Black voters.Massachusetts 1812
62 #31 – Which of the following statements about trends in presidential approval ratings is supported by information presented in the graph above?President Reagan was the most popular President since 1953.There is little relationship between military conflicts and presidential approval ratings.Presidents have tended to become more popular over time.A President's popularity tends to fall during his term in office.President Carter suffered the largest drop in popularity of any President since 1953.
63 Correct answer to #31 (Presidential approval ratings) A President's popularity tends to fall during his term in office.Since World War II, every president has had his approval rating fall below 50% at some point in his presidency. Gerald Ford’s approval rating fell the fastest, as he was below 50% in just three months.Massachusetts 1812
64 #32 – In Miranda v. Arizona, the United States Supreme Court declared that illegal aliens have the same right to an education as United States citizensevidence seized during an illegal search cannot be used in courtaffirmative action programs cannot employ numerical quotaspolice must inform criminal suspects of their constitutional rights before questioning suspects after arrestthe death penalty is constitutional so long as juries are supplied with sentencing guidelines
65 Correct answer to #32 (Miranda rights) police must inform criminal suspects of theft constitutional rights before questioning suspects after arrestMiranda v. Arizona was one of the many important decisions by the Warren Court that expanded due process rights.Massachusetts 1812
66 #33 – Which of the following is NOT a presidential role authorized by the Constitution? To be commander in chief of the armed forcesTo lead the political party of the PresidentTo negotiate treaties with foreign nationsTo be chief executiveTo present the State of the Union address
67 Correct answer to #33 (Presidential roles) To lead the political party of the PresidentBecause political parties aren’t mentioned in the Constitution, the role of the President within his party is also not authorized.Massachusetts 1812
68 #34 – Which of the following statements about voting behavior in the United States is correct? College graduates are more likely to vote than are those who have at most a high school diploma.Voters under the age of 25 are more likely to vote than are those in any other age group.Registration requirements have no significant effect on voter turnout.Since 1920, the proportion of women who have voted is approximately the same as the proportion of men who have voted.During the twentieth century, the proportion of African Americans who voted was approximately the same as the proportion of White Americans who voted.
69 Correct answer to #34 (Voting behavior) College graduates are more likely to vote than are those who have at most a high school diploma.Levels of political participation increase with education. In the 2012 election, this was less true – a little more than 50% of the registered voters without a college degree voted, while a little less than 50% of those with a college degree voted. Also unusual in this election was the number of youth voters – upwards of 50% of college students voted (and they would be part of that non-degreed statistic) .
70 #35 – An electoral system based on single-member districts is usually characterized by strong, centralized political parties and a weak executivehigher rates of voter turnout than are common in other systemslegislative representation of each party in proportion to the number of votes it receivesdomination of the legislature by two political partiesideological rather than mass-based parties
71 Correct answer to #35 (Single member districts and two party system) domination of the legislature by two political partiesThis is called Duverger’s law, and it results from the need to achieve a plurality of votes. Since only the winner of the greatest number of votes is rewarded, this system serves to eliminate weak (third) parties. The alternative is proportional representation.
72 #36 – Which of the following is true under the system of checks and balances? The Supreme Court can overrule the President's policy proposals.The Senate must ratify treaties negotiated by the President before they become law.A bill becomes law when the House and the Senate pass it, and the Supreme Court declares it constitutional.The Supreme Court can remove members of Congress, and Congress can impeach the President.The House of Representatives appoints justices to the Supreme Court and the Senate approves the appointments.
73 Correct answer to #36 (Checks and balances) The Senate must ratify treaties negotiated by the President before they become law.Surprisingly, the reason Answer D is wrong is that Congress is responsible for removing their own people through a process set in each chamber (not outlined in the Constitution).
74 #37 – A major reason why the majority of Supreme Court justices have had political experience prior to appointment to the Court is thatjustices are expected to act like politicians in their decision-makingPresidents seek to place individuals on the Court whose policy views are similar to their ownthe Senate will refuse to confirm any nominee to the Court who is not familiar with the political processappointment to the Supreme Court is a reward for political party loyaltythe Court is expected to defer to the political branches in making its decisions
75 Correct answer to #37 (Supreme Court nominations) Presidents seek to place individuals on the Court whose policy views are similar to their ownAgain, this goes back to the President’s ability to influence the direction of the court even after his time – ensuring a greater legacy.
76 #38 – The Supreme Court ruled the legislative veto unconstitutional on the grounds that such vetoes were the province of the courts aloneviolated the principle of separation of powerswould give the executive branch too much powerwould give too much authority to nonelected officialswere an unwarranted infringement on the rights of state governments
77 Correct answer to #38 (Legislative veto) violated the principle of separation of powersA legislative veto would allow Congress to overturn actions of the executive branch. This is not part of the U.S. system of separation of powers as outlined in the Constitution.
78 #39 – The President can do which of the following with out seeking the consent of either the House or the Senate?Ratify a treaty.Appoint ambassadors.Appoint district court judges.Deploy troops.Declare war.
79 Correct answer to #39 (Congressional approval of Presidential actions) Deploy troops.Under the War Powers Resolution (1973), the President may deploy troops for military action, but they must receive Congressional authorization or remove troops within days.
80 #40 – Which of the following is true about the line-item veto? It is specifically granted to the President by the Constitution.It is used by many state governors.It is basically the same as a pocket veto.Its use was upheld by the Supreme Court.It would, if instituted, strengthen the power of congressional leaders
81 Correct answer to #40 (Line-item veto) It is used by many state governors.The line-item veto allows governors to eliminate specific provisions from bills (such as pork belly spending and non-related riders) without having to send the entire bill back to the legislature to be rewritten. It is denied to the President, as it is seen as a violation of the separation of powers.
82 #41 – In The Federalist No. 10, James Madison argued that factions in a republic are a more serious threat if the republic is largenatural but controllable by institutionsnot likely to occur if people are honestprevented by majority ruleprevented by free elections
83 Correct answer to #41 (Federalist #10) natural but controllable by institutionsMadison argued that there was no way to prevent factions except through tyranny – but representative democracy, in which popular will would be mitigated by the judgment of elected officials, would control the effects of factions.
84 #42 – Which of the following actions by the federal government best illustrates the concept of unfunded mandates?Requiring that polling booths remain open beyond the hours of the workdayRequiring states and municipalities to provide certain services for their citizens without providing resources to pay for those servicesRequiring state governments to guarantee short-term bonds issued by large municipalities in their statesRequiring all municipalities to impose a minimum property tax on all residential and business propertiesRequiring states and municipalities to privatize many previously publicly funded services
85 Correct answer to #42 (Unfunded mandates) Requiring states and municipalities to provide certain services for their citizens without providing resources to pay for those servicesIn an unfunded mandate, the national government requires something of the states/cities without providing the funding (i.e., modifying facilities to meet the Americans with Disabilities requirements without giving them the money to do so).
86 #43 – The term "horse-race journalism" refers to the tendency of the media to cover Congress by focusing on committee chairs rather than on the work of the committeescover campaigns by emphasizing the relative standings of the candidates in the polls rather than the issues they discusscover politics by concentrating on scandal and corruption rather than on instances of integrity and honorable actioncompete for access to sources rather than to cooperate in gathering newscompete to be first with major breaking stories rather than trying to present full, accurate accounts of such stories
87 Correct answer to #43 (“Horse race journalism”) cover campaigns by emphasizing the relative standings of the candidates in the polls rather than the issues they discussThe name says it all. Like covering a race, the journalists focus on “who’s ahead” instead of each candidate’s position on the issues.
88 #44 – Which of the following is a provision of federal election laws? A small fee must be paid by persons voting in federal elections.On-site registration to vote must be permitted on the day of any federal election.Electoral districts must be apportioned to equalize the numbers of Democratic and Republican voters wherever a historic imbalance exists.Citizens must be automatically registered to vote on their eighteenth birthday.In areas with significant populations of linguistic minorities, voting materials must be made available in the preferred languages of the population.
89 Correct answer to #44 (Federal election laws) In areas with significant populations of linguistic minorities, voting materials must be made available in the preferred languages of the population.Poll taxes (A) have been outlawed. Voter registration is elective (D) and must be completed prior to elections (B).There is no requirement that the balance between parties in each district be equalized (C), only that districts must be drawn in such a way that each vote counts the same – as established in Baker v. Carr.
90 #45 – The largest portion of "uncontrollable spending" in the federal budget is designated for which of the following?Interest on the national debtEntitlement spendingDefense spendingEnvironmental programsSalaries of federal bureaucrats
91 Correct answer to #45 (Uncontrollable spending) Entitlement spendingBecause benefits for entitlement programs are promised well in advance and payable to all who qualify, the federal government is responsible for meeting these obligations without consideration for cuts.
92 #46 – The Supreme Court established the incorporation doctrine when the Court interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment as extending most of the requirements of the Bill of Rights to the states as well as the federal governmentinterpreted the Ninth Amendment as requiring national health and worker-safety standards to protect the individual's implied right of personal safetystripped the armed forces of their discretionary powers regarding military service for gay men, lesbians, and married peoplestrengthened local police forces by granting them the power to investigate and prosecute federal offensesgranted the federal government the power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
93 Correct answer to #46 (Selective incorporation) interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment as extending most of the requirements of the Bill of Rights to the states as well as the federal governmentThe incorporation doctrine answers the question of whether the states are obligated to respect provisions like freedom of religion and speech. This question is tested and decided on a case by case basis for each aspect of the Bill of Rights.
94 #47 – Of the following, the most important role in the political socialization of children is played bytheir peer groupstheir places of worshipthe familythe mediathe school
95 Correct answer to #47 (Political socialization) the familyPolitical socialization is the process by which individuals develop their beliefs and attitudes toward politics. All of the listed influences play a part, but the family has the greatest role in this process.
96 #48 – The 1973 Roe v. Wade decision that upheld a woman's right to secure an abortion was based on the right toprivacy implied in the Bill of Rightsequality guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendmentsdue process of law enumerated in the Fifth and Sixth amendmentsadequate medical care implied in the Preamble to the Constitutionlife, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness enumerated in the Declaration of Independence
97 Correct answer to #48 (Roe v. Wade) privacy implied in the Bill of RightsBecause the right to privacy is “implied” but not listed in the Bill of Rights, decisions such as Roe v. Wade and Griswold v. Connecticut that are based on this right are controversial.
98 #49 – Which of the following was the most important effect of replacing the Articles of Confederation with the Constitution of 1787?The protection of free speechThe guarantee of states' rightsThe establishment of direct democracyThe creation of a strong national governmentThe establishment of judicial review
99 Correct answer to #49 (Articles of Confederation to Constitution) The creation of a strong national governmentThe problems experienced under the Articles of Confederation demonstrated the need for a strong central government capable of raising funds, calling up armed forces, standardizing currency and trade, and settling disputes between the states. Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution gives Congress many powers that were denied the national government under the Articles of Confederation.
100 #50 – The doctrine of original intent holds that Supreme Court justices must emphasize independent and original thinking in considering constitutional mattersthe meaning of the Constitution depends on the intention of the framerscases selected for review by the Supreme Court must address an original and new concern not previously addressed by the CourtSupreme Court justices should avoid bias by documenting theft original impressions of a casethe Supreme Court should review all treaties that alter previously established foreign policy
101 Correct answer to #50 (Original intent) the meaning of the Constitution depends on the intention of the framersThis is obviously at odds with judicial activism, which allows the Supreme Court to interpret the Constitution to serve the contemporary needs of society.
102 #51 – A major difference between the House of Representatives and the Senate is that filibusters are possible only in the Houserevenue bills must originate in the Senatejudicial nominations originate in a House committeeeach state has equal representation in the House but not in the Senatethere is unlimited debate in the Senate but not in the House
103 Correct answer to #51 (Differences in House and Senate) there is unlimited debate in the Senate but not in the HouseWhile the House Rules Committee sets a limit on debate in the House, the Senate may debate until there is unanimous consent to bring the bill to a vote – or until a filibuster is ended by cloture (3/5 vote).
104 #52 – Senate confirmation is required for which of the following presidential appointments? I. Secretary of stateII. White House chief of staffIII. Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)IV. Attorney generalI onlyII and III onlyII and IV onlyI, III, and IV onlyI, II, III, and IV
105 Correct answer to #52 (Senate approval of presidential appointments) I, III, and IV onlyThe president is required to seek Senate confirmation of diplomatic officials, Cabinet members, heads of executive agencies, and federal judges – but he is allowed to choose his personal White House staff without the Senate’s approval.
106 #53 – All of the following serve as checks on the power of the federal courts EXCEPT: Federal judges can be impeached.The voters can oust federal judges in national elections.Congress can pass a law clarifying "legislative intent."Presidents, governors, and local executives can refrain from enforcing court rulings.Congress and the state legislatures can amend the Constitution.
107 Correct answer to #53 (Checks on federal courts) The voters can oust federal judges in national elections.The federal judiciary is insulated from political considerations due to the fact that federal judges are appointed for life (assuming good behavior), which means that they needn’t participate in partisan elections or cater to the electorate. Despite this fact, the Supreme Court and other high courts often make decisions that reflect the majority public opinion.
108 #54 – To which of the following congressional committees would a proposal to reform the national income-tax system initially be sent?House Appropriations CommitteeHouse Ways and Means CommitteeHouse Budget CommitteeSenate Budget CommitteeSenate Finance Committee
109 Correct answer to #54 (Reforming tax system) House Ways and Means CommitteeBecause all revenue bills (taxes and tariffs) must originate in this committee, any significant revision of the tax code must start here as well.
110 #55 – Political action committees (PAC's) representing which of the following groups have increased in number most substantially since the mid-1970's?LaborBusinessHealth-care professionalsVeterans' groupsCivil rights advocates
111 Correct answer to #55 (PACs) BusinessAlthough PACs had existed as a union entity since the 1940s, the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1972 was amended in 1974 to define PAC operations – and make them an attractive method of funding campaigns. Businesses, in particular, take advantage of this opportunity to use their ample monetary resources to influence legislation in favor of their sector.
112 #56 – Since the 1970's, Presidents have made use of executive orders at an increasing rate because executive ordersare noncontroversial measures that can be easily implementedare rarely defeated in Congressdo not need to be passed by Congressavoid judicial reviewmust be ratified by the Senate rather than by the House
113 Correct answer to #56 (Executive orders) do not need to be passed by CongressIn the Era of Divided Government, executive orders allow quicker implementation of presidential policy goals. Executive orders are still subject to judicial review (i.e., Korematsu v. U.S. testing Executive Order 9906).
114 #57 – Which of the following is NOT a core value of United States political culture? Legal equalityPolitical equalityEconomic equalityFreedom of religionFreedom of speech
115 Correct answer to #57 (Executive orders) Economic equalityWhile all of the other ideals are part of our political culture (common beliefs that govern the operation of our political system), Americans do not believe in economic equality. Jefferson wrote that all men are endowed with unalienable rights that include “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” (by which, he meant property). Only the equal right to pursue prosperity is guaranteed to citizens (through government actions like anti-trust suits).
116 #58 – The concept of "critical elections" is most closely associated with the electoral college processelections during wartimethe nomination processeconomic recessionparty realignment
117 Correct answer to #58 (Critical elections) party realignmentCritical elections see a significant shift in voting patterns overall, or within a specific region or demographic sector. We often see critical elections as the dividing point in historical party eras (i.e, the election of 1932, which saw a realignment of African American voters to the Democratic party).
118 #59 – Which of the following statements is supported by the chart above? Both Republican Presidents nominated a greater proportion of Latinos to the judiciary than did either Democratic President.President Carter made more judicial nominations than President Reagan.The percentage of nominees to the judiciary who were minorities was higher for Republican Presidents than for Democratic Presidents.The percentage of nominees to the judiciary who were women was higher for Republican Presidents than for Democratic Presidents.President Reagan nominated the smallest percentage of women to the judiciary.
119 Correct answer to #59 (Presidential judicial nominations) President Reagan nominated the smallest percentage of women to the judiciary.Another “reading the chart” question. While this is true, Reagan is better known for appointing Sandra Day O’Connor, the first female justice to the Supreme Court.
120 #60 – Federal benefits that must be funded by Congress and must be paid to all citizens who meet eligibility criteria are calleddiscretionary appropriationsindividual entitlementstax expendituresdistributive benefitscontinuing appropriations
121 Correct answer to #60 (Entitlements) individual entitlementsEntitlement programs (such as Social Security and Medicare) make up the largest class of federal expenditures.
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