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”. Identity Politics in Zanzibar and Challenges to Democratic Consolidation in Tanzania Dr. Bernadeta Killian Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow June 28,

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Presentation on theme: "”. Identity Politics in Zanzibar and Challenges to Democratic Consolidation in Tanzania Dr. Bernadeta Killian Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow June 28,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Identity Politics in Zanzibar and Challenges to Democratic Consolidation in Tanzania Dr. Bernadeta Killian Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow June 28, 2007 Please note that the views expressed in this presentation represent the opinions and analysis of the speaker and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Endowment of Democracy.

3 United Republic of Tanzania One unitary republic, two governments One unitary republic, two governments Composed of two formerly sovereign states: Tanganyika and Zanzibar Composed of two formerly sovereign states: Tanganyika and Zanzibar 1961: Tanganyika gains independence from the British 1961: Tanganyika gains independence from the British 1963: Zanzibar gains independence 1963: Zanzibar gains independence 1964: Revolution in Zanzibar 1964: Revolution in Zanzibar April 26, 1964: Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar April 26, 1964: Union between Tanganyika and Zanzibar Zanzibar enjoys semi-autonomous status, exercises its sovereignty over all domestic and non-union matters Zanzibar enjoys semi-autonomous status, exercises its sovereignty over all domestic and non-union matters Zanzibar non-union matters: setting up national and budgetary policies on such sectors as agriculture, tourism, health, education, water, communication, industry, etc. Zanzibar non-union matters: setting up national and budgetary policies on such sectors as agriculture, tourism, health, education, water, communication, industry, etc. Union Matters: Foreign affairs, defense and security, police, emergency powers, citizenship, external borrowing and trade, mineral oil resources, higher education, court of appeal, registration of political parties, etc. Union Matters: Foreign affairs, defense and security, police, emergency powers, citizenship, external borrowing and trade, mineral oil resources, higher education, court of appeal, registration of political parties, etc.

4 Basic Data Tanzania:945,087sq. km Tanzania:945,087sq. km Tanzania: per-capita income: US$340 (2006) Tanzania: per-capita income: US$340 (2006) Zanzibar: per-capita US$327 (2005) Zanzibar: per-capita US$327 (2005) Tanzania (total pop.): 34,443,603 Tanzania (total pop.): 34,443,603 Zanzibar: 981,754 people Zanzibar: 981,754 people Unguja Island (60%) Unguja Island (60%) & Pemba Island (40%)

5 I. Introduction Tanzania: Unity in Diversity Tanzania is renowned for its long-established civic peace & unity among its diverse ethnic, religion & racial groups Tanzania is renowned for its long-established civic peace & unity among its diverse ethnic, religion & racial groups It has been a peace-broker & model of national cohesion in E. Africa It has been a peace-broker & model of national cohesion in E. Africa The use of Swahili language has been a binding thread The use of Swahili language has been a binding thread In the case of Zanzibar, a common religion (Islam) and a high rate of intermarriage have unified the state’s diverse ethno-racial groups In the case of Zanzibar, a common religion (Islam) and a high rate of intermarriage have unified the state’s diverse ethno-racial groups

6 Why is Zanzibar Different? Struggle for the control of the state has been intense, deadly & zero-sum Struggle for the control of the state has been intense, deadly & zero-sum Unlike in mainland Tanzania, the struggle for political power in Zanzibar has largely been shaped by the politics of identity on the basis of race. Unlike in mainland Tanzania, the struggle for political power in Zanzibar has largely been shaped by the politics of identity on the basis of race. Racial labels of ‘Africans’ vs. ‘Arabs’ are widely used in the context of political contestation for power. Racial labels of ‘Africans’ vs. ‘Arabs’ are widely used in the context of political contestation for power. This presentation seeks to understand why. This presentation seeks to understand why. Why do political elites in Zanzibar politicize racial identities, particularly at election time?

7 Politicized Racial Identity Explained Control of the State Identity of the State (Arab vs. African) Sovereignty of the State (Zanzibar vs. Union)

8 II: Historical Context The Shaping of Political Identities Over the centuries, Zanzibar attracted several immigrant groups, including: Mainland Africans(3 rd -4 th century) Mainland Africans(3 rd -4 th century) Persians(10 th century) Persians(10 th century) Arabs (11 th century) Arabs (11 th century) Europeans(16 th century) Europeans(16 th century) Comorians(18 th Century) Comorians(18 th Century) Indians (19 th century) Indians (19 th century) Intermarriage between Persians & Africans led to the emergence of Shirazi Africans Intermarriage between Persians & Africans led to the emergence of Shirazi Africans

9 The Shaping of Political Identities Shirazi Africans = the Hadimu, Tumbatu and Pemba Shirazi Shirazi Africans = the Hadimu, Tumbatu and Pemba Shirazi Mainland Africans = Africans of recent arrival from the African hinterland (slaves, freed slaves and their descendants, and migrant laborers) (latecomers) Mainland Africans = Africans of recent arrival from the African hinterland (slaves, freed slaves and their descendants, and migrant laborers) (latecomers) 1948 census: the Shirazi (55.8%), Mainland African (19.8%), Arabs(16.9%), Indians(6.2%), Comorians (1.1%),Europeans (0.1%),Other (0.1%) 1948 census: the Shirazi (55.8%), Mainland African (19.8%), Arabs(16.9%), Indians(6.2%), Comorians (1.1%),Europeans (0.1%),Other (0.1%) Africans Shirazi Africans Mainland Africans

10 British Arabs Indians Africans Colonial Economy and the Shaping of Political Identities

11 Shaping of Political Identities (cont’d) Politics deeply divided along ethno-racial lines Politics deeply divided along ethno-racial lines African Association, Shirazi Association, Arab Association, Indian Association African Association, Shirazi Association, Arab Association, Indian Association Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP): Arab-led Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP): Arab-led Formed in 1955Formed in 1955 Support base: Arabs, Pemba & Tumbatu ShiraziSupport base: Arabs, Pemba & Tumbatu Shirazi Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP): Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP): Formed 1957Formed 1957 Support base: Mainland Africans & Unguja Shirazi (Hadimu)Support base: Mainland Africans & Unguja Shirazi (Hadimu) Zanzibar and Pemba People ’ s Party (ZPPP): Zanzibar and Pemba People ’ s Party (ZPPP): Formed in 1959Formed in 1959 Support base: Pemba ShiraziSupport base: Pemba Shirazi

12 Arab Rule (219 years) ZNP/ZPPP government Dec 10, 1963–Jan 12, 1964 (33 days) Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar Jan 12, 1964–April 26, 1964 (3 ½ months) E. African Federation? State Succession & State Identity in Zanzibar State Succession & State Identity in Zanzibar Shirazi chieftainships until 16th century British Rule (73 years) As the state has changed hands, so too has the identity of the state changed.

13 III: Democratization and & Political Identities Third wave of democratization brings to the fore suppressed competing diversities Third wave of democratization brings to the fore suppressed competing diversities Resurgence of identity politics: Recurrent feature of new democracies in Latin America, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and former USSR Resurgence of identity politics: Recurrent feature of new democracies in Latin America, Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and former USSR Group/ethnic identities: determining criterion for inclusion or exclusion in the polity in deeply divided societies. Group/ethnic identities: determining criterion for inclusion or exclusion in the polity in deeply divided societies. ‘Who belongs here?’ has become a buzz word in democratic competition in what Horowitz calls ‘severely divided societies’ (Horowitz, 1985) ‘Who belongs here?’ has become a buzz word in democratic competition in what Horowitz calls ‘severely divided societies’ (Horowitz, 1985)

14 As opposed to cultural and market-based identities, political identities are those that are legally enforced and institutionally reproduced in the process of state formation (Mahmood Mamdani, 2001) As opposed to cultural and market-based identities, political identities are those that are legally enforced and institutionally reproduced in the process of state formation (Mahmood Mamdani, 2001) Plural identities emerge from situations of stress, in which identity is threatened, and when consequences of domination by another group are perceived to be enormous (Horowitz,1985,1999; Rothchild,1997) Plural identities emerge from situations of stress, in which identity is threatened, and when consequences of domination by another group are perceived to be enormous (Horowitz,1985,1999; Rothchild,1997) Political identities: instrumental rather than primordial due to their dynamics, situational and pragmatic nature. Political identities: instrumental rather than primordial due to their dynamics, situational and pragmatic nature. Democratization & Political Identities

15 ‘Election-centric conception’ of ‘consolidation’ phase as Harbeson (1999) calls it, is problematic ‘Election-centric conception’ of ‘consolidation’ phase as Harbeson (1999) calls it, is problematic Even after three consecutive elections, democracy cannot be regarded as having been consolidated in Zanzibar. Even after three consecutive elections, democracy cannot be regarded as having been consolidated in Zanzibar. Democratic consolidation should go beyond the ‘democratic process,’ which focuses largely on the holding of multi-party competitive elections and focuses on what Dankwart Rustow (1970) calls “habituation” Democratic consolidation should go beyond the ‘democratic process,’ which focuses largely on the holding of multi-party competitive elections and focuses on what Dankwart Rustow (1970) calls “habituation” Guillermo O’Donnell (1996) refers to “a close fit between formal rules and behaviour.” Guillermo O’Donnell (1996) refers to “a close fit between formal rules and behaviour.”

16 IV: Multi-Party Democracy & Resurgence of Identity Politics (1992–present) Old political divisions and memories come to the fore. Old political divisions and memories come to the fore. Two major political parties emerge — CUF and CCM Two major political parties emerge — CUF and CCM CCM (or Chama cha Mapinduzi) CCM (or Chama cha Mapinduzi) is a merger of ASP and Mainland party Tanganyika African National Union (TANU)is a merger of ASP and Mainland party Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) fully represents the interests of the old ASPfully represents the interests of the old ASP Electoral support: the same as in pre-independence electionsElectoral support: the same as in pre-independence elections CCM stronghold: Unguja and AfricansCCM stronghold: Unguja and Africans Civic United Front (CUF) Civic United Front (CUF) appears to replicate the previous ZNP-ZPPP allianceappears to replicate the previous ZNP-ZPPP alliance Electoral support: the same as in pre-independence electionsElectoral support: the same as in pre-independence elections CUF stronghold: Pemba and among non-AfricansCUF stronghold: Pemba and among non-Africans

17 CCM versus CUF Votes earned by CCM and CUF presidential candidates in Unguja and Pemba (1995–2005)

18 Politicization of Racial Identities Politicization of Racial Identities The return of multiparty politics has revived unresolved questions concerning control of the state in Zanzibar, its identity, and its sovereignty. The return of multiparty politics has revived unresolved questions concerning control of the state in Zanzibar, its identity, and its sovereignty. Politicized racial identities during campaigns: ‘ Africans ’ vs. ‘ Arabs ’ Politicized racial identities during campaigns: ‘ Africans ’ vs. ‘ Arabs ’ For the regime in power, democratization can as well lead to losing control of the state, its African identity, and the possibility of being ruled by what they find as being the remnants of the Sultanate oligarchy. For the regime in power, democratization can as well lead to losing control of the state, its African identity, and the possibility of being ruled by what they find as being the remnants of the Sultanate oligarchy. The state sovereignty is also at stake given the fact that the policy of the major opposition party is to revisit the Union question (form and content). The state sovereignty is also at stake given the fact that the policy of the major opposition party is to revisit the Union question (form and content).

19 Politicization of Racial Identities CUF Campaign Speeches Elections would lead to “the end of a blackman’s rule.”—CUF leader, campaign rally at Kibandamaiti, 21 October, 1995 “The African-led Revolutionary government has been far more brutal than the Arab aristocracy…and that people’s living standards were better off before the Revolution than it is today.”—CUF presidential candidate, campaign rally at Makunduchi, September 17, 2005

20 CUF Campaign Issues (cont ’ d) Question legitimacy of the 1964 Revolution Question legitimacy of the 1964 Revolution Cherish Zanzibar ’ s 1963 independence Cherish Zanzibar ’ s 1963 independence Pay reparations or return confiscated property to pre-revolution owners Pay reparations or return confiscated property to pre-revolution owners Convict those engaged in arbitrary killings and torture during and after the revolution Convict those engaged in arbitrary killings and torture during and after the revolution Advocate for a federal system, 3-government structure Advocate for a federal system, 3-government structure Suspend and review additional Union matters Suspend and review additional Union matters Promote “ equal rights for all, ’ including equality in development Promote “ equal rights for all, ’ including equality in development

21 Politicization of Racial Identities CCM Campaign Issues “ The Zanzibar population is predominantly black; the colour of indigeneous Africans … There is a need to ensure that the great 1964 Revolution remains for ever and that Zanzibar remains African. That is the only way Africans as the majority Zanzibaris can determine their own fate and the destiny of Zanzibar ” “ The Zanzibar population is predominantly black; the colour of indigeneous Africans … There is a need to ensure that the great 1964 Revolution remains for ever and that Zanzibar remains African. That is the only way Africans as the majority Zanzibaris can determine their own fate and the destiny of Zanzibar ” “ CUF is a party representing Arab interests and voting for it would lead to the restoration of the Sultanate, and the subsequent break-up of the Union. ” “ CUF is a party representing Arab interests and voting for it would lead to the restoration of the Sultanate, and the subsequent break-up of the Union. ” CUF is portrayed to be a Muslim party “ with an intent of establishing an Islamic state. ” CUF is portrayed to be a Muslim party “ with an intent of establishing an Islamic state. ” — Omar Mapuri (former CCM deputy chief minister, minister of education in Zanzibar, and former Union minister), Zanzibar Revolution: Achievements and Prospects, 1997

22 CCM Campaign Issues CCM Campaign Issues Praise & protect the 1964 Revolution ‘ Revolution forever ’ Praise & protect the 1964 Revolution ‘ Revolution forever ’ Support the Union and two-government structure (formal CCM policy) Support the Union and two-government structure (formal CCM policy) Bring about development Bring about development Maintain peace and unity Maintain peace and unity

23 Consequences of the Politicization of Racial Identities Political conflicts, political stand-offs, violence, lack of social and civic peace. Political conflicts, political stand-offs, violence, lack of social and civic peace. Three rounds of elections (in 1995, 2000, and 2005) do not deepen democracy, but rather, derail it. Three rounds of elections (in 1995, 2000, and 2005) do not deepen democracy, but rather, derail it and 2000 elections deemed not free and fair, due to voter intimidation, voter fraud, rigging and partisanship of the electoral body and 2000 elections deemed not free and fair, due to voter intimidation, voter fraud, rigging and partisanship of the electoral body elections: anomalies in vote counting 2005 elections: anomalies in vote counting

24 Sporadic violence during election season (2000). Mass demonstrations lead to death of at least 30 people Sporadic violence during election season (2000). Mass demonstrations lead to death of at least 30 people Freedom of speech constrained by the government Freedom of speech constrained by the government Two Reconciliation Accords between CCM and CUF (1999 & 2001) breached Two Reconciliation Accords between CCM and CUF (1999 & 2001) breached ‘Ethnicization of state apparatus’ ‘Ethnicization of state apparatus’ Consequences of the Politicization of Racial Identities

25 V: Implications of Competing Political Identities on Democratic Consolidation I: Elections become an instrument to maintain state power Voters are excluded based on their appearance, area of origin, party affiliation ( ‘ Wapemba ’ versus ‘ Wabara ’ )Voters are excluded based on their appearance, area of origin, party affiliation ( ‘ Wapemba ’ versus ‘ Wabara ’ ) Security forces as voters —‘ voter importation ’Security forces as voters —‘ voter importation ’

26 Registration of Security Forces Turnout in Registration Centers in Central District with Military Camps Nearby Registration center Military Camp Estimated Voters Registered voters % of registered voters Ubago School Ubago TPDF Machui School Machui JKU & FFU Posta Kaepwani Unguja Ukuu Navy (KMKM) Tunguu School Tunguu Fire Brigades Marumbi School Marumbi KMKM Dungabweni School Dunga JKU & TPDF Jendele School Jendele JKU Cheju School Cheju Prison Bambi Sec. School Bambi JKU Source: TEMCO (2006) The 2005 Presidential and General Elections in Zanzibar, p. 216

27 II: CUF ’ s status as the leading opposition party in Tanzania is at risk Unlike other opposition parties in Tanzania, CUF has a strong social base in Zanzibar, owing to a perceived common history and a collective sense of exclusion Unlike other opposition parties in Tanzania, CUF has a strong social base in Zanzibar, owing to a perceived common history and a collective sense of exclusion However, politicization of CUF as a “ Pemba ” party, “ Islamic ” party, and “ Arab ” party, makes it difficult for CUF to expand its social base to the mainland. However, politicization of CUF as a “ Pemba ” party, “ Islamic ” party, and “ Arab ” party, makes it difficult for CUF to expand its social base to the mainland. All other opposition parties are in decline in terms of electoral support. All other opposition parties are in decline in terms of electoral support. Implications of Competing Political Identities (cont’d)

28 CUF versus Other Parties: Union Parliamentary Seats

29 CCM versus Opposition Parliamentary Elections in Tanzania (1995–2005)

30 III: Ambivalent popular support for institutions of democracy “ Unquestionable embrace of democratic procedures ” by a significant segment of the citizenry is a crucial element of consolidation (Diamond et al., 1997)“ Unquestionable embrace of democratic procedures ” by a significant segment of the citizenry is a crucial element of consolidation (Diamond et al., 1997) Unlike in mainland Tanzania, citizens ’ support for multi-party democracy in Zanzibar is comparatively low.Unlike in mainland Tanzania, citizens ’ support for multi-party democracy in Zanzibar is comparatively low. Implications of Competing Political Identities (cont’d)

31 Popular Support for Democracy in Mainland Tanzania vs. Zanzibar (March 1999) PARTY SYSTEM TANZANIAMAINLANDZANZIBAR Multi-party system 51.5% 54.4%40.9% (299) (247)(52) Single-party system 40.4% 37.4%51.2% (235) (170)(65) No difference 8.1% 8.1%7.9% (47) (37)(10) TOTAL 100% 100%100% (581) (454)(127)

32 Popular Support for Democracy Mainland Tanzania vs. Zanzibar PARTY SYSTEM TANZANIAMAINLANDZANZIBAR Multi-party system 63.3% 65.5%55.3% (857) (690)(166) Single-party system 27.9% 25.4%34% (369) (267)(102) No difference 9.4% 9.1%10.7% (127) (96)(32) TOTAL 100% 100%100% (1353) (1053)(300) Tanzanians ’ Support for Party Systems (March 2006)

33 Racial Tolerance Among Zanzibaris (1999 Survey) Questions Would Agree Somewhat Agree Would Disagree Depends on his/her decision TOTAL Son marry from different racial group 59.8(76) 2.4(3) 21.3(27) 16.5(21) 100(127) Daughter marry from different racial group 56.7(72)4.7(6)22.8(29)15.8(20)100(127) Son marry from different political party 51.2(65)4.7(6)27.6(35)16.6(21)100(127) Daughter marry from different political party 59.1(75)4.7(6)25.2(32)11(14)100(127) Son marry from another religion 11.8(15)4.7(6)68.5(87)15(19)100(127) If your MP is of different race/color Don’t mind Somewhat mind Would mind Don’t know TOTAL 14.2(18)7.1(9)77.2(98)1.6(2)100(127) If your MP is of different religion (22)(11)(91)(3)(127) Implications of Competing Political Identities (cont’d)

34 Respondents’ Support for Democratic Institutions & Processes QUESTIONS QUESTIONSAgree Somewhat Agree DisagreeOtherTotal All political parties be allowed to hold public meetings 58.3% (74)7.1 (9)24.4 (31)10.3 (13)100 (127) Government critics should not contest for national leadership 28.3 (36)3.1 (4)59.8 (76)8.7 (11)100 (127) Private-owned media should be restricted 18.9 (24)11.8 (15)57.5 (73)11.8 (15)100 (127) Only CCM should be allowed to rule 55.9 (71)0.8 (1)39.4 (50)4 (6)100 (127) Implications of Competing Political Identities (cont’d)

35 IV: Rigidity of Zanzibari Voters As a result of politicized ethno-racial identities, it has been difficult for a third party or mainland-based parties to gain electoral support As a result of politicized ethno-racial identities, it has been difficult for a third party or mainland-based parties to gain electoral support Electoral campaigns are avenues largely for enhancing party loyalty among members, rather than recruiting new members, e.g. role of party youth wings is to guard the meetings against ‘ intruders ’ (non-members) Electoral campaigns are avenues largely for enhancing party loyalty among members, rather than recruiting new members, e.g. role of party youth wings is to guard the meetings against ‘ intruders ’ (non-members) Community/group pressure to make people attend only those meetings that are organized by their parties Community/group pressure to make people attend only those meetings that are organized by their parties Implications of Competing Political Identities (cont’d)

36 V: The State of the Union Increased assertiveness on the part of Zanzibar government for more political space and autonomy from the Union government. Increased assertiveness on the part of Zanzibar government for more political space and autonomy from the Union government. As political competition gets tougher, the need for strong control over coercive instruments of the state becomes necessary. As political competition gets tougher, the need for strong control over coercive instruments of the state becomes necessary. In May 2004, the Revolutionary government of Zanzibar outlined 15 Union matters to be removed from the Union list, including oil and natural gas, international relations, intelligence, police, etc. In May 2004, the Revolutionary government of Zanzibar outlined 15 Union matters to be removed from the Union list, including oil and natural gas, international relations, intelligence, police, etc. Implications of Competing Political Identities (cont’d)

37 VI: Conclusions & Recommendations Consensus, negotiations, accommodation, and compromise become difficult. Consensus, negotiations, accommodation, and compromise become difficult. Rule of law and good governance become jeopardized Rule of law and good governance become jeopardized Recognizing variations and contrasts between these two partner states is critically important Recognizing variations and contrasts between these two partner states is critically important Bring ethno-racial issues and their implications to the negotiation table Bring ethno-racial issues and their implications to the negotiation table Building and nurturing incentive mechanisms of dialogue and reconciliations should be made a high priority. Building and nurturing incentive mechanisms of dialogue and reconciliations should be made a high priority.

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