Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Voters and Voter Behavior"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 6: Voters and Voter Behavior Section 1: The Right to VoteSection 2: Voter QualificationsSection 3: Suffrage and Civil RightsSection 4: Voter Behavior
2Section 1: The Right to Vote The success of a democratic government depends on popular participation – voting is the key.“Suffrage”: the right to vote (“franchise”).“Electorate”: the potential voting population.
3When the Constitution was passed, only white male property owners could vote. Over time, qualifications to vote have eased significantly and the federal government has taken control over granting the right to vote.
4The following restrictions are placed on states setting voter qualifications: 15th Amendment prohibited the denial of voting based on race.19th Amendment prohibited the denial of voting based on sex.23rd Amendment added voters of the District of Columbia.
524th Amendment eliminated the poll tax. (+ Civil Rights Act of 1965) 26th amendment forbids states to set minimum voting age at higher than 18.
6SumaryWhat constitutional restrictions exist on the States’ power to set voting qualifications?
7Section 2: Voter Qualifications There are universal voting requirements in every state based on 3 major subjects:1. Citizenship2. Residence3. Age
81. Citizenship: You must be a citizen of the U.S. to vote. “Aliens”(Legal/documented Residents): foreign-born residents who have not become citizens are typically denied the right to vote.
92. Residence:You must be a resident of the state you plan to cast a vote in – usually at least 30 days.* “Transients”: persons living in a state for only a short period of time (travelling salesmen, college students, etc.) usually aren’t granted residency
103. Age:The 26th Amendment says the states cannot deny citizens of the U.S. the right to vote if they are 18 or older – “old enough to fight, old enough to vote” – states can lower the voting age if they chose to do so.
11The only other major qualification that has stood the test of time is “registration”: a procedure of voter identification intended to prevent fraudulent voting.*Typically, you must register your name, age, place of birth, present address, etc. You stay registered unless you die, move, are convicted of a serious crime, or are committed to a mental institution.
12Recently, all states have made it easier to register to vote – online, at the DMV, by mail, or at local offices of state employment, welfare, and other social service agencies.Most states require voters to be registered days before elections.
13SummaryExplain the other requirements that States have used or still use as voting qualifications. (pp )
14Section 3: Suffrage and Civil Rights Voting rights have been ensured through constitutional amendments and various acts passed by Congress.Today, no voter is denied the right to vote because of discrimination in any election throughout the United States.
15Those denied the right to vote: Those in mental institutions or declared mentally incompetent, many who commit serious crimes, and some who have been dishonorably discharged from the armed forces.
16AmendmentsThe 15th Amendment was intended to protect any citizen from being denied the right to vote because of color.ViolenceThreatsFiringDenying credit“legal” devicesLiteracy testsPoll taxesGerrymanderingGomillion V. Lightfoot (Alabama, 1960)White primaries (Parties: “Private Assoc.”)“Smith v. Allwright (Texas, 1944)
17ActsCivil Rights Act of set up the United States Civil Rights Commission to inquire into claims of voter discrimination.Civil Rights Act of added the additional safeguard of appointing federal voting referees. They were given the power to help qualified persons to register and vote in federal elections.
18ActsCivil Rights Act of It relied on judicial action to overcome racial barriers and emphasized the use of federal court orders, or injunctions.Voting Rights Act of This applied to all elections held anywhere in this country.Preclearance is prior approval by the Department of Justice for a change to a law.States can bail out by showing that they have not applied discriminatory voting practices for at least 10 years.
21SummaryAnalyze the provisions and effects of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.Pp
22Section 4: Voter Behavior In 2004, 56.7% of the electorate participated in the presidential election (95 million eligible voters did not vote).Ballot Fatigue: People vote less as they go down the ballot: Voters exhaust their patience/knowledge (Chart P. 165)
23Why Don’t People Vote?1. “Cannot Voters”: literally cannot vote (resident aliens, ill or physically disabled, out of town, mentally ill, jailed, religiously forbidden).2. Actual Nonvoters: some people believe their vote does not matter – they do not have “political efficacy”: a feeling of influence in politics.3. Other Reasons: cumbersome procedures (long lines, time, bad weather, registration process) – “time-zone fallout”: voters in the west may not vote because early results may have already sealed the election – lack of interest (#1 factor of nonvoting).
24More Likely to Vote:Older, women, and those with high levels of income, education, job status, party affiliation.Less Likely to Vote:Younger, men, and those with lower levels of income, education, job status, and no party affiliation.
25Why people vote the way they do? socialization—studying political socialization, the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions, can also be useful in predicting voting behavior
26Sociological FactorsVoter preferences can’t be predicted by just one sociological factor. Voter opinion is a combination of all of these factors and more.
27Psychological Factors Party Identification-loyalty to partysingle most significant and lasting predictorCandidates and Issuestwo short-term factors
28SummaryHow do sociological and psychological factors work together to influence voter behavior?