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2 Monotheism in the Middle East In Southwest Asia, three religions arose, linked by their belief in a single God, known as monotheism. From the Middle East, these religions later spread to Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas They are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

3 Judaism The oldest of these, Judaism, was the first religion known to assert the existence of one God. The religion began 4,000 years ago in present-day Israel According to Jewish tradition, Jews emigrated from Israel to Egypt where they were enslaved until Moses led them back to Israel and presented them with the Ten Commandments Today, there are over 13 million Jews mainly located in the United States, Europe, and Israel.

4 INCREDIBLY BRIEF HISTORY OF JUDAISM Abraham had two sons: Ishmael and Isaac Isaac’s son, Jacob (Israel), will have 12 sons Eventually, the Jews will be enslaved by Egyptians and Moses will lead them out They will break into two groups: Israel and Judah Israel will be defeated, Judah will survive only to be conquered by Babylonians and Assyrians

5 CONTINUED The Jews will come together and build Jerusalem, until the Romans destroy it in 70 CE The Romans will spread the Jews to the furthest corners of their empire (Diaspora) Only a few Jews will remain in Israel/Palestine until the 1948 More info to come…

6 Monotheism. Other ancient peoples were animists or polytheists (believing in many gods) Ten Commandments. The Jewish religion emphasizes the importance of living justly and following God’s commandments. These ten laws are: 1) No other Gods 2) No idols 3) No swearing 4) Keep Sabbath 5) Honor parents 6) Do not kill 7) Do not commit adultery 8) Do not steal 9) Do not lie 10) Do not covet Old Testament. The history of the ancient Hebrews and their relationship with God is told in the first books of the Bible, known as the Old Testament. Jews refer to the first five books of the Old Testament as the Torah KEY FEATURES OF JUDAISM

7 DIFFUSION OF JUDAISM Judaism has diffused through forced migration and relocation diffusion They do not actively seek converts, so there are between 12-14 million people that practice Judaism worldwide Most are in Israel, the United States, and Europe

8 JUDAISM Origins and History Adherents Worldwide God(s) and Universe Human Situation and Life’s Purpose AfterlifePracticesTexts The religion of the Hebrews (c. 1300 BC), especially after the destruction of the in 70 AD. 14 millionOne God, Yahweh (YHVH). Obey God's commandments, live ethically. Focus is more on this life than the next. Not historically emphasized. Beliefs vary from no afterlife to shadowy existence to the World to Come (similar to heaven). Circumcision at birth, bar/bat mitzvah at adulthood. Synagogue services on Saturdays. No pork or other non-kosher foods. Holidays related to historical events. Bible (Tanakh), Talmud

9 CHRISTIANITY Christianity began 2,000 years ago It is based in the teachings of Jesus, a Jew born in Bethlehem. Jesus claimed he was the Messiah, or savior After his death, his followers, known as the apostles, spread the Christian religion which attracted people who believed in an afterlife in which all believers (rich and poor) would be rewarded Today there are over 2 billion Christians located on all continents, and is the world’s most popular religion

10 CHRISTIANITY The original Christians were Catholic Once the Roman Empire split into two, two branches emerged: the western empire became Roman Catholic, and the eastern empire became Eastern Orthodox Protestantism emerged during the 15 th and 16 th centuries

11 Role of Jesus. Christians believe Jesus was the son of God, and sacrificed himself to save humankind from punishment for their sins. Christians believe that after his death, Jesus was resurrected and rose to Heaven Christian Conduct. Christians believe they will be saved and will go to Heaven after death if they have faith in Christ as their savior and treat others with love and respect. Christians believe in the Golden Rule- ”do unto others as you would have them do unto you” The Christian Bible. The sacred book of Christianity consists of the Old Testament and the New Testament, which describes the life of Jesus, and the works of the apostles Major Beliefs of Christianity

12 DIFFUSION OF CHRISTIANITY Christians actively seek converts, so some diffusion is contagious (especially through Western Europe) Largest and most dispersed religion Today there are almost two billion Christians on every continent Worldwide diffusion occurred during the Age of Imperialism Today missionaries travel attempting to convert those in other places to Christianity EU and Missionaries

13 CHRISTIANITY Origins and History Adherents Worldwide God(s) and Universe Human Situation and Life’s Purpose AfterlifePracticesTexts Founded by Jesus Christ in c. 30 AD,. 2 billionOne God who is a Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit All have sinned and are thereby separated from God. Salvation is through faith in Christ and, for some, sacraments and good works. Eternal heaven or hell (or temporary purgatory). Prayer, Bible study, baptism, Eucharist (Communion), church on Sundays, numerous holidays. The Bible (Old and New Testaments)

14 ISLAM Islam means “submission” (to Allah) in Arabic A follower of Islam is called a Muslim, or “one who submits to God” Islam was founded by Mohammed around 600 c.e. He had a vision that commanded him to convert Arab tribes to the belief in a single God, know as “ Allah ”, the same God worshipped by Jews and Christians His teachings are contained in the Qu’ran (Koran), the Islamic Holy Book. Today, there are over 1 billion Muslims, with over 20% living in Arabic-speaking countries. Indonesia is the country with the highest number of Muslims.

15 DIVISIONS IN ISLAM After Muhammad’s death in 632 CE, it was unclear who would lead in his place His son-in-law, Ali, was the lawful heir However, some of Muhammad’s followers wanted a different leader This began a series of wars, until the followers were divided into Sunni Muslims and Shi’ite Muslims (the followers of Ali)

16 Confession of Faith. Muslims must affirm: “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet” Prayer. Muslims must pray five times a day, while facing east towards the city of Mecca Charity Muslims must give money to the poor and pay taxes to the mosque Fasting During the month of Ramadan, Muslims cannot eat or drink during daylight hours Pilgrimage If physically able, a Muslim must make a pilgrimag e (religious trip) to Mecca The Five Pillars of Faith are the basic religious duties that all followers of Islam must fulfill

17 DIFFUSION OF ISLAM Before his death, Muhammad had converted kings on the Arabian Peninsula They spread Islam across their empire through invasion and conquest Islam spread across Northern Africa, Southern Europe, and Southeast Asia very quickly Today in North and South America, it is the result of relocation diffusion It is currently the fastest growing religion, and has 1.3 billion adherents

18 ISLAM Origins and History Adherents Worldwide God(s) and Universe Human Situation and Life’s Purpose AfterlifePracticesTexts Muhammad, 622 AD, 1.3 billion (Sunni: 940 million) One God (Allah in Arabic) Humans must submit (islam) to the will of God to gain after death. or Hell.Five Pillars: Faith, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, Fasting. Mosque services on Fridays. Ablutions before prayer. No alcohol or pork. Holidays related to the pilgrimage and fast of Ramadan. Qur'an (Scripture); Hadith (tradition)

19 DIFFUSION OF UNIVERSALIZING RELIGIONS Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.


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