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RUSSIA Ivan IV – Catherine II “Czar (also spelled as tsar) literally means an emperor or a male monarch. It was the imperial title of Russian rulers,

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Presentation on theme: "RUSSIA Ivan IV – Catherine II “Czar (also spelled as tsar) literally means an emperor or a male monarch. It was the imperial title of Russian rulers,"— Presentation transcript:


2 RUSSIA Ivan IV – Catherine II

3 “Czar (also spelled as tsar) literally means an emperor or a male monarch. It was the imperial title of Russian rulers, who ruled Russia from 16th century until the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. The title Czar is derived from the Latin word Caesar, the title of Roman emperors. Czar also means a person having great power. The Russian Czars were the rulers of Russia, whose reign began with Ivan, the Terrible and ended with Nicholas II. They ruled for nearly 350 years.”

4 I. Ivan IV the Terrible (Rurik Dynasty) Our story begins with Ivan IV (1547-1584) Eastern Orthodox Church Ivan sought land to the west – fought war to gain land on the Baltic Shore (Latvia) – Lost – Financial drain – Swore he would one day conquer Poland (never did) Ivan separated Russia into 2 spheres: – the oprichnina (His own territories) – the zemshchina(all the rest)

5 Broke the power of the Muscovite Boyars (exiled thousands to Siberia) Created new militia – Encouraged raping, looting, torturing, and burning enemies in the tsar’s name – Spread terror throughout Russia 1571 the Tartars invaded and sacked Moscow Ivan also swore he would conquer Poland (never did)

6 Got angry with his daughter-in-law (how she dressed) and beat her His Son intervened… Ivan beat him to death – Was oldest son… heir to throne – Youngest son, Fyodor took throne after Ivan died Fyodor had no kids – thus died with no heir


8 II. Time of Troubles Aristocrats reassert power Resulted in Civil War & Revolts At one point Poland invaded and controlled for a short time Zemsky Sobor (national assembly) chose Michael Romanov as Tsar - 1613 Started Romanov Dynasty

9 III. Tsars… Mikhail Feodorovich......................1613-1645 (First Romanov czar) Alexei Mikhailovich......................1645-1676 (Son of Mikhail) Feodor Alexeevich........................1676-1682 (Son of Alexei) Ivan Alexeevich (Ivan V).................1682-1689 (Son of Alexei)


11 IV. Peter the Great : 1689-1725 6’9” tall (a giant of a man) Crude – Enjoyed belching contests & dirty jokes – Enjoyed floggings, impalings,etc

12 A. Trip to the West Made him determined to Westernize Mainly a technical/military Westernization – Gadgets & tools of war – Goal was to equip for conquest Military reform – Create navy – Expand army to 210,000 – Peasants serve 25 year terms – Used Russians & Westerners as officers

13 B. Government Reform Zemsky Sobor never summoned – Zemsky Sobor: 1711 created a Senate to rule while he was away – Senate ineffective & boards of administrators created to replace the Senate 8 Provinces, later expanded to 50 Table of Ranks created to provide non-noble opportunities to join nobility – Table of Ranks: Mercantilist

14 C. Religious Reform State control of church sought Abolished position of patriarch Holy Synod created to make religious decisions

15 D. Westernization Book of etiquette to adopt western behavior Russian beard shaved & coats shortened – Beard burnings – If refused, “beaten without mercy” Women could remove traditional veil & mix with men (upper classes) Women could marry of own free will

16 E. Window to the West Ice-Free sea port sought – Baltic Sea – Sweden controlled Baltic Poland, Denmark, Russia ally against Sweden – Sweden (king Charles XII) crush Poles & Denmark – Swedish army of 8,000 routed Russian army of 40,000!

17 F. Great Northern War (1701-1721) Peter reorganized army & overran Swedish Baltic territories Charles preoccupied until 1708 Charles XII, after 1708, focused entirely on Russia – wanted to take Moscow Weather & Scorched-Earth tactics devastated Swedish army (1709) War dragged on for 12 more years

18 1721: Treaty of Nystad – Peter received Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia – Sweden reduced to a 2 nd rate power – Russia now a European power St. Petersburg built as the “Window to the West” – Thousands of peasants died building the city – Remained capital of Russia until 1917

19 V. More Tsars… Ekaterina Alexeevna (Catherine I)…..1725-1727 Peter Alexeevich (Peter II).................1727-1730 Anna lvanovna...................................1730-1740 Ivan VI................................................1740-1741 Elizaveta Petrovna (Elizabeth I)........ 1741-1762 Peter III..............................................1762 – His German father married Anne, daughter of Peter I. Peter III admired everything Prussian and despised the Russians. He was killed after a palace revolution led by his wife, Catherine II, in 1762.

20 VI. Catherine II the Great: 1762-1796 A.The Woman: – German by birth – Won adoration of the Palace Guard – Enlightened Despot early on – later reversed her position (Pugachev’s rebellion)

21 B. Enlightened Ideas Wanted reform, but she needed the Palace Guard and Nobility to retain her power Questioned institution of serfdom Questioned torture & Capital Punishment Wrote a book, Instruction that depicted her ideas Advocated Equality before the Law Negotiations with Nobles never really manifested any real change

22 C. Russian Politics 50 provinces, each controlled by Nobles Charter of Nobility, 1785 – Noble ‘criminals’ tried by their peers – Exempt from taxation & corporal Punishment Peasant conditions horrible – and they got worse during her reign Plagued with peasant revolts & uprisings

23 D. Pugachev’s Rebellion Cossacks led by Emelyan Pugachev rose up in rebellion In 1774 a manifesto written Initially successful (scared Catherine) Government forces rallied & fought back Pugachev betrayed – Captured & tortured, then executed Rebellion collapsed Catherine responded harshly: – All rural reform halted – Serfdom expanded

24 E. Territorial Expansion Russia got a piece of Poland (Partition of Poland) Fought & defeated the Turks – Treaty in 1774 gave Russia land in the East – Russia given privilege to protect Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Christians in Ottoman Empire – Given right to sail in Turkish waters

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