3Early life-At age 10 came to the throne, but did not take control of government until 1689-in 1697 he studied Western technology, and noted the customs and homes-He adopted Western ideas, technology, and culture or a policy of westernization.
4Leadership -Most autocratic of Europe’s absolute monarchs -He wanted to do three things:*Strengthen the army*Expand Russian borders*Centralize royal power-One way to strengthen his power was to make landowning nobles or Boyar serve the state
5expansion -search for warm-water port -Located along the Black Sea, a port that was free of ice all year-Peter the Great attempted to fight the Ottoman Empire and gain the warm-water port but was defeated
6War with SwedenPeter the Great first suffered defeats over the Baltic region.In 1709, Peter defeated the Swedes and won land along the Baltic Sea.
7Peter’s CityPeter built a magnificent new capital city called St. Petersburg.The city was located on the swampy shores of the Neva River and was a “window on the west.”Was a symbol of Peter’s desire to forge a modern Russia.
8Toward the PacificPeter signed a treaty with Qing China to define their common border in the east.Vitus Bering, a Danish explorer, explored an area known as the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska.
9Russia After the Ruler Further expanded Russian territory Gained a warm-water port on the Baltic SeaCreated a mighty armyEnded Russia’s long period of isolationism.
11Early Life Was a German princess At age 15, wed to the throne of RussiaCzar Peter III was murdered and Czarina Catherine the Great took the throne.
12Leadership An Efficient Ruler She reorganized the provincial government.She codified the laws.She began education for girls and boys.She embraced French/ Western ideas.
13A Ruthless Absolute Monarch She allowed boyars tax exemptions.She allowed boyars to increase their powers over the peasants.Conditions for peasants grew worse during Catherine’s reign.
14ExpansionWar with the Ottoman Empire resulted in Catherine the Great’s expanding her borders and gaining a warm-water port on the Black Sea.Partition of PolandThree Monarchs: Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great, and Emperor Joseph II agree to divide up Poland instead of fighting one another.
15Russia After the Ruler: FINAL THOUGHTS Absolute Monarchs ruled four out of five leading powers in Europe.Radical change will shatter the French monarchy, upset the balance of power, and revolutionize European societies.