Presentation on theme: "Alexander the Great and His Legacy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Alexander the Great and His Legacy PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusAlexander the GreatMap: Alexander’s EmpireThe Hellenistic WorldHellenistic AchievementsVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of the Greek Scholars
2 Alexander the Great and His Legacy Main IdeaAlexander the Great formed a huge empire, spread Greek culture into Egypt and many parts of Asia, and paved the way for a new civilization to develop in those areas.Reading FocusHow did Alexander the Great rise to power?What was life like in the culture called the Hellenistic world that developed after Alexander’s death?What were some significant Hellenistic achievements?
3 Alexander the Great The Rise of Macedonia Army Reorganization Macedonia rose to power and took control of Greece in the years that followed the Peloponnesian War.Most Greeks considered Macedonians backwardLived in villages, not citiesSpoke form of Greek unintelligible to other Greeks359 BC, Macedonia’s fortune changed when Philip II took throneThe Rise of MacedoniaOne of Philip’s first actions as kingAdopted phalanx system, but gave soldiers longer spearsIncluded larger bodies of cavalry and more archersSet out to conquer GreeceFaced little oppositionQuickly crushed armiesConquered all but SpartaArmy Reorganization
4 Alexander Becomes King Philip’s conquests might have continued, but he was assassinatedTitle, plans for conquests fell to son, Alexander the GreatAlexander only 20, but had been trained to rule almost from birthLearned warfare and politics from father, mother, and AristotleAlexander’s ConquestsAlexander faced almost immediately with revolts in GreeceSet out to reestablish controlUsed harsh measures to show rebellion not toleratedCrushed Theban army and sold people into slavery, burned city
5 Empire Building Empire Campaigns With Greece under control, Alexander decided to build empire334 BC, led army into Asia to take on PersiansArmy relatively small, but well trained, fiercely loyalPersian army huge, disorganizedEmpireWithin year Alexander’s army had won victory against Persians in Asia MinorMoved south to Phoenicia, Egypt; welcomed as liberator, named new pharaohNext destroyed Persian army near Gaugamela, in what is now Iraq; caused Emperor Darius III to fleeCampaigns
6 With defeat of Darius, Alexander the master of Persian world Expanding the EmpireWith defeat of Darius, Alexander the master of Persian worldTroops marched to Persepolis, a Persian capital, burned it to ground as sign of victoryBut Alexander not satisfied with size of empireLed army deeper into Asia, winning more victoriesLed army to the Indus, perhaps to conquer IndiaSoldiers had had enough, refused to proceed farther from homeAlexander forced to turn back to west
8 End of the Empire Death at Early Age Power Struggle Alexander’s empire largest world had ever seenDid not rule very long323 BC, Alexander fell ill while in BabylonDied a few days later at age 33Alexander died without naming heirDeath at Early AgeGenerals fought each other for powerIn the end, the empire was divided among three most powerful generalsCalled themselves kingsAntigonus became king of Macedonia and GreeceSeleucus ruled Persian EmpirePtolemy ruled EgyptPower Struggle
9 Why did Alexander’s empire break apart after his death? SummarizeWhy did Alexander’s empire break apart after his death?Answer(s): He did not name an heir, so the empire was divided among three powerful generals.
10 The Hellenistic WorldBy bringing together a number of diverse peoples in his empire, Alexander helped create a new type of culture. It was no longer purely Greek, or Hellenic, but Hellenistic, or Greeklike.Alexander made conscious effort to bring people, ideas togetherMarried two Persian princessesEncouraged soldiers to marry Persians as wellBlending CulturesAppointed officials from various cultures to help ruleBuilt dozens of new cities, encouraged Greek settlers to move into themMost new cities named AlexandriaNew CitiesAlexandria, EgyptLocated at mouth of Nile, where it met MediterraneanIdeal location for tradeHarbor once busiest in worldMost Famous City
11 Alexandria and Beyond Center of Culture Center of Learning With trade money, Alexandrians built great palaces, streets lined with monuments; city was home to centers of culture, learningThe Museum, temple to spirit of creativity, home to many works of artCenter of LearningLibrary of Alexandria contained works on philosophy, literature, history, sciencesAlexandria remained center of culture, learning long after Hellenistic periodTrading CentersAlexandria one of largest trading centers, but not only one in Hellenistic worldCities in Egypt, Persia, Central Asia trading centers for Africa, Arabia, IndiaTraders brought back goods, new ideas like teachings of Judaism
12 Life in the Hellenistic World Shift from Hellenic Greece to Hellenistic world brought drastic changes to livesMost obvious change, how people were governedCity-state no longer main political unit, replaced by kingdomTraditional Greek democracy gave way to monarchyDrastic ChangesLives of women also changed significantly in Hellenistic PeriodWomen had few rights in earlier Greek city-statesLives began to improve after Alexander, though women still not equal to menGained rights to receive education, own propertyLife for Women
13 How did society change in the Hellenistic age? ExplainHow did society change in the Hellenistic age?Answer(s): different cultures blended; government changed; women gained more rights
14 Hellenistic Achievements Blending of cultures brought significant changesExchange of ideas from different culturesNew advances in philosophy, literature and scienceNew schools of philosophy developed in Alexander’s empireOne called Cynicism; students rejected pleasure, wealth, social responsibilityPeople live according to naturePhilosophyPeople should seek pleasure, considered good; try to avoid pain, considered evilTo find pleasure, develop close friendships with people who share similar ideasEpicureansThe most influential new school was Stoicism, with emphasis on reason, self-discipline, emotional control and personal morality. Stoics believed people should find their proper role in society and fulfill it.
15 Art and literature also changed during Hellenistic Period Hellenistic artists learned to convey emotion, movement in works, especially sculptureWomen became much more common as subject of art, literatureMost earlier Greek statues had depicted menLove stories became popular form for first timeEarlier literature dealt with actions of godsHellenistic writings focused on common events in people’s everyday lives
16 Science and Technology Tremendous advances in science, technology during this periodAmong great Egyptian scholars, Euclid formulated many ideas about geometry we still learn about todayEgypt also home of Eratosthenes, who calculated size of the worldOther Hellenistic scientists studied the movement of the stars; the makeup and inner workings of the human bodyArchimedes, one of world’s greatest inventors, used knowledge of math, physics to create devicesDeveloped compound pulley to lift heavy loads; also invented mechanical screw to draw water out of ship’s hold, out of deep wellInventorsOther inventors not as ambitious as Archimedes, but clever in own rightOne built tiny steam engine, used to power mechanical toysSuch devices representative of Hellenistic fascination with mechanics, technologyMechanics
17 What advances did Hellenistic scholars make in science and technology? AnalyzeWhat advances did Hellenistic scholars make in science and technology?Answer(s): geometry; calculating the circumference of the globe; study of the movement of the stars; study of the human body; new inventions