Presentation on theme: "PAGES 120-123. People warned Athens of Philip II, the king of Macedonia. They warned that he was never satisfied and always wanted more. Athens acted."— Presentation transcript:
People warned Athens of Philip II, the king of Macedonia. They warned that he was never satisfied and always wanted more. Athens acted too late against him, & lost their independence along with the other city-states This disaster ushered in a new age Greek influence spread from the Mediterranean to the borders of India. Philip II’s son & architect to this era is known to history as, Alexander the Great
Macedonia to the Greeks was a backward half-civilized mountainous land. Philip gained the throne in 359BC & dreamed of conquering Greece 338BC he defeated Athens & Thebes at the battle of Chaeronea. This brought all of Greece under his control He still wanted more…the Persian Empire, but before he could go after the, he was assassinated at his daughter’s wedding.
Alexander was only 20 years old He was an experienced soldier & shared his father’s plan The Persian ruler Darius III was weak, & the provinces were in rebellion against him. The Persian empire stretched for more than 2,000 miles from Egypt to India. He began marching through Asia Minor into Palestine & south to Egypt. 331BC he took Babylon & other Persian capitals, but before he reached Darius III, the Persian ruler was murdered.
He headed east, and crossed into northern India. 326BC for the 1 st time his soldiers faced troops mounted on war elephants Even after never losing a battle, his soldiers were tired and refused to go farther east. Upon his death bed, it is said that he whispered, “To the strongest” when asked who would take over for him No one leader proved strong enough to succeed him 3 generals divided up the empire: Macedonia & Greece to one, Egypt to another, & most of Persia to the 3rd
His most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture Greek temples were filled with Greek statues from Egypt to the borders of India Eastern & western cultures began blending Alexander encouraged this when he married a Persian woman & urged his soldiers to follow. He dressed in Persian dress The blending of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, & Indian cultures is known as the Hellenistic civilization
Located at the heart of the Hellenistic world on the sea lanes between Europe & Asia People from all cultures filled the streets Pharos was an amazing sight that was a 440 ft tall lighthouse Rulers built the Museum as a center of learning The Museum had labs, lecture halls, & a zoo The library there had thousands of scrolls that represented the accumulated knowledge of the ancient world More women learned to read and write Able & clever Cleopatra came to rule in her own right
Armies of architects & artists were employed throughout the Hellenistic world The Hellenistic Age contributed to the rise of new schools of philosophy such as Stoicism Stoicism Founded by Zeno Urged people to avoid desires & disappointment by accepting whatever life brought Preached high moral standards Protecting the rights of fellow humans All people including women & slaves were morally equal because all had the power of reason
Aristarchus argued that Earth rotated on its axis & orbited around the sun. This idea was not accepted for another 2,000 years. Eratosthenes showed that Earth was round & calculated its circumference. These thinkers built on earlier knowledge & better developed this knowledge. Hippocrates studied the causes of illnesses & looked for cures. His Hippocratic oath set ethical standards for doctors. Greek ideas have influenced political thinking to the present day, and set standards in arts & sciences for later people of Europe. Also, during this period, Rome emerged as a powerful new state