Presentation on theme: "AP EURO - Introduction Ms. Callejas. SATELLITE VIEW OF EUROPE."— Presentation transcript:
AP EURO - Introduction Ms. Callejas
SATELLITE VIEW OF EUROPE
1. Northern Europe 2. Western Europe 3. Eastern Europe 3,800 square miles
1. “Classical Period” - Ancient Greece/Rome 2. “Middle Ages/Medieval Period”- (Early : , High : , Late : ) 3. “Early Modern Period” – 1450 to mid 1700’s 4. “Modern Period”- Mid 1700’s to Present
Inquiry: A close examination of something in order to search for information or truth. Historical Sources: Are used as EVIDENCE by Historians.
1. Primary Source: A document/Artifact that originates from the past. Ex: letter, diary, drawing, Painting, clothing, document, map, photograph… 2. Secondary Source: A document/Artifact that has been written (or made ) recently about the past. Ex: textbook, scholarly article, biography, current book.
13 th century = 1200’s 14 th century= 1300’s 15 th century = 1400’s 16 th century = 1500’s 17 th century = 1600’s 18 th century = 1700’s 19 th century = 1800’s 20 th century – 1900’s 21 st century = 2000’s
1. Improvement in climate 2. New Agricultural Methods : wheeled plow 3. Growth in Population 4. Growth in Trade 5. Growth of Cities
1 st European University: * Bologna, Italy Est. 11 th century ! *University of Paris, 1200 *University of Oxford (England), 1208
Degrees awarded after 4-6 years of study Artium Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Arts) Artium Magister (Master of Arts) Doctor’s Degree-Law, Medicine, Theology. Required 10 additional years of study! Lectures in Latin
Instructional Method: An attempt to reconcile faith (Theology) and reason (Greek Philosophy of Aristotle) St. Thomas Aquinas
Social, Political, & Ecclesiastical Breakdown
Brutal, Longer Winters 1303, Excessive Rain & Floods 1314 3 Years of Crop Failures End result : The Great Famine
The Plague Culprits: Rats & Fleas carried bacterium Yesrinia Pestis Symptoms: high fever, aching joints, swelling of lymph nodes, dark blotches
Entered through Constantinople (Turkey) 1346 Spread rapidly Followed Trade routes The dance maccabre
European population declined between 25% to 50% Between How did this inexplicable event affect the mentality of people? Doctor’s Robe
New attitudes towards Life & Death emerged Altered ideas towards religion 2 Perspectives: 1.New Pietism Emerged 2. Loss of Respect for the Church
The Flagellants (Germany) Saw Black Death as punishment from God Flogged themselves to win forgiveness of God Catholic Church alarmed
Jews accused of Causing Plague By “poisoning wells” Jews Persecuted In Germany 60 Jewish Communities persecuted by 1351
Wrote The Decameron Premise of Novel : Nobles “hide” in country home to escape plague And Tell stories to pass time
A Series of wars between England and France What were the causes of the Hundred Year’s War?
* French King Charles IV died without a male heir
English King Edward III Claimed French Throne as his Why? His Grandfather was a French King!
French Barons were insulted and Chose Phillip VI of Valois as King (1 st cousin of the dead French King Charles IV)
French land controlled by English King!
Flanders wanted independence from France Asked England for help… And acknowledged English King Edward III as King of France 1340 !!!
France not a unified country before war began French King controlled only ½ the country
A Series of short raids Few Major battles Marked by Times of truce & Ineffective treaties
Much larger population Army of 50,000 men vs. British army of 32,000
Weapons & Technology: The Long Bow ( six arrows per minute!) Successful strategies: 1. Capture the enemy knights & hold them for ransom ! 2. Raids: steal & destroy
English won greatest victory Used Cannons & Longbows They Captured the greatest ransom…of all
John II “the Good” claimed throne in 1350 was Captured by the English! France now “ruled” by Estates General Representative Council of Townspeople & nobles
France agreed to pay ransom- 3 million gold crowns for King John II’s Release King Edward of England renounced claim to French throne, but kept territories
Re-started the war invaded a weakened France With help from Dukes of Normandy, Gained control of Normandy, Paris, & Northern France
Legitimate French heir disinherited ! King Henry V of England proclaimed successor to French Throne ! Henry V and Real French Heir Charles VI died 1422 But Charles VI had a SON…
Son of Charles VI Rightful French heir to the throne Was desperate to win/end war
Presented herself to King Charles VII in 1429 The King of Heaven called her to deliver the besieged Orleans from the English.
Became an inspiration to all Unified hopes of the French Brought sense of national identity & self confidence Led French army to victory at Orleans, 1429
Fell into English hands Her “unnatural dress” & claim to divine guidance was used against her
Suffered 10 weeks of interrogation Condemned & burned as a heretic She was 19 1456 declared innocent 1920 declared Roman Catholic Saint
1. France gained national identity and a “National” hero, Joan of Arc 2. France became unified “nation” 3. England lost territories in France by 1450 4. War ended 1453