Presentation on theme: "Hundred Years War HH World Studies 2012-2013. The Hundred Years War (1337-1453) Series of conflicts between England and France that were fought on and."— Presentation transcript:
Hundred Years War HH World Studies
The Hundred Years War ( ) Series of conflicts between England and France that were fought on and off over a hundred years and have become known as the Hundred Years War
CAUSES OF THE WAR
succession French king died without an heir Two claims to the throne Edward III of England (direct claim to the throne) Philip of Valois (the French choice)
French Family Tree
French Lands The King of England is a vassal to the French king The proximity of France to England and the overlapping political and economic interests set the two nations on a collision course.
French lands English monarchs owned lands in Normandy (since the conquest) and Aquitaine (through marriage) France was not a united country. The king only controlled about half of his own lands.
National Unity In the absence of feudal lords, peasants looked to strong kings with sovereign power for protection and security. Loyalty to sovereign kings gave Europeans a sense of national identity. This is a large factor in the decline of feudalism
Economic Rivalry Flanders: area in Northern France was the leading industrial center in Europe Heavily involved in trade with England When France tried to exert its control over Flemish wealth, they turned to the English for help
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES Before the War
French Advantages Larger population (about 16,000,000) Home-field advantage Far richer than England At one point, the French fielded an army of over 50,000 at most, Britain mustered only 32,000.
French Disadvantages Internal disunity and social conflict Lack of good leadership
English Advantages Strong Central Government Military discipline Technological/weapons superiority Relied on strategy rather than numbers Avoided pitched battles Preferred quick raids
The Longbow One of the greatest English technological advantages was the use of the longbow. Could pierce an inch of wood or the armor of a knight at 200 yards! A longbow could be fired more rapidly. 6 arrows per minute.
The British Longbow: The Battle of Poitiers, 1356
The Use of the Cannon at Orleans
THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR IN 3 PARTS 1.English Advances into France 2.Internal Struggles 3.French Rally, Joan of Arc
I. English Advances England army seizes Calais on the French mainland France suffers from internal conflict Aristocracy demand political rights Peasants revolt in 1358 English momentum ends with the death of Edward III
Early English Victories Height of English dominance
II. Internal Struggles Both nations experience peasant revolts (peasants were taxed most heavily to pay for the war) Resulted in a temporary truce
III. The French Rally French rally around Charles VII Joan inspires the French to a series of victories 1453, French expel English from the mainland (except for port city of Calais)
Joan of Arc French peasant girl Received a revelation from God Mission to restore the heir to the throne Captured and executed as a heretic Became an inspiration to the French Resistance and a symbol of national identity
EFFECTS OF THE WAR
French Outcomes Awakened French nationalism Helped the state become more centralized Heavy taxes fell on the peasantry
English Outcomes War of the Roses – Civil War between two nobles houses competing for the throne Develop their own clothing industry
Larger Impacts Burden falls hardest on peasants Downfall of feudalism Revolution in European warfare English longbow meant the end of knights Gunpowder and cannons could take down castle walls Allowed strong and wealthy king to centralize power at the expense of rebellious nobles