Presentation on theme: "Submission to the will of Allah. Islam An Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they."— Presentation transcript:
Islam An Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they call Allah.
Abraham’s Genealogy ABRAHAM SARAH HAGAR Isaac Esau Jacob 12 Tribes of Israel Ishmael 12 Arabian Tribes
The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
Muhammad received his first revelation from the angel Gabriel in the Cave of Hira in 610 622 Hijrah Muhammed flees Mecca for Medina. * The beginning of the Muslim calendar (1 A.H.) Muhammad’s revelations were compiled into the Qur’an after his death
The Qur’an Muslims believe it contains the word of God 114 suras (chapters) Written in Arabic
The Five Pillars of Islam 1.The Shahada: Declaration of Faith 2.The Salat: Mandatory Prayers 3.The Zakat: Almsgiving 4.The Sawm: Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan 5.The Hajj: The Pilgrimage to Mecca
The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rock where Muhammad ascended into heaven.
Other Islamic Religious Practices Up to four wives allowed at once No alcohol or pork No gambling Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem
What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Muslims and why is there animosity between these two sects of Islam?
Dispute over succession When Muhammad died, he did not, at least in public, name an heir…. So, Muhammad’s father-in-law took over and held the new Muslim “empire” together as the first Caliph (or successor). Soon, by the time of the third Caliph a dispute began over who should rightfully become the Caliph, leader of Islam. Uthman, the third caliph was assassinated. –The Shia believe that the heir should be a family member. –The Sunni believe that the heir should be selected by the previous caliph.
The Spread of Islam Easy to learn and practice No priesthood Teaches equality among men “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes. Jihad (“struggle”) against pagans and other non-believers Internal and External
Expansion of Islam Mecca and Medina and the rapid spread of Islam Battle of Constantinople (the gateway to Europe) 717 –Greek Fire Tours and the croissant 732 Numidians (the civilization that caused problems for the Carthaginians) = Moors Many North Africans welcomed the Muslims because the tax they had to pay for their freedom was less than the tribute paid to Constantinople. However, many individuals (according to accounts) did resist and were slaughtered for their efforts.
Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1.Indonesia183,000,0006.Iran62,000,000 2.Pakistan134,000,0007.Egypt59,000,000 3.India121,000,0008.Nigeria53,000,000 4.Bangladesh114,000,0009.Algeria31,000,000 5.Turkey66,000,00010.Morocco29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.