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Chapter 2 Settlement Across the Sea: The Idea, the Failures, Success 1550–1624.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Settlement Across the Sea: The Idea, the Failures, Success 1550–1624."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Settlement Across the Sea: The Idea, the Failures, Success 1550–1624

2 European Claims in New World John Cabot claims Newfoundland and Nova Scotia for England in 1497 Giovanni Verrazano claims much of North America’s eastern coast for France in 1523 Spain enjoys New World monopoly in 16th century 1500s were Spanish century Gold and silver funded armies and navy

3 Europe Divided Martin Luther 1517 attack on Catholic Church Called to account by Charles V Bible as only source of God’s word Henry VIII condemned Luther's Defense of the Seven Sacraments Protestantism spreads German princes seized church lands Large parts of Germany, Netherlands and Scandinavia turn to Lutheranism

4 Henry VIII Henry VIII wanted his marriage to Catherine of Aragon annulled Wanted male heir Anne Boleyn became pregnant Pope Clement balked because of power of Charles V of Spain Henry establishes Church of England Dissolved 400 monasteries and nunneries Henry as head of Church of England

5 A Half Century of Instability In Edward VI reign ( ) real changes in Church of England occur Dies in 1553 Catherine’s daughter, Mary, rules 1553–1558 Married prince Philip of Spain Returns England to Catholicism Probably more Englishmen still felt Catholic Persecutes Protestants, “Bloody Mary” Dies childless

6 Elizabethan England Elizabeth I takes throne in 1558 Protestant but shrewd politician Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury Refused to persecute Catholics Phillip II of Spain offered marriage but she put him off Sea Dogs attack Spanish ships Francis Drake and the Golden Hind sail around world He returned with much Spanish loot English ship captains attacked Spanish ships In 1580, Elizabeth gave up pretense of friendship with Spain Knighted Drake and accepted his loot

7 Sir Walter Raleigh and Roanoke Humphrey Gilbert 1583 sailed to Newfoundland to try and establish colony Died in storm in failed colony attempt Sir Walter Raleigh inherited colony license Gained Elizabeth’s favor Sent expedition who chose Roanoke Island Roanoke colony established in 1584 Made enemies amongst Indians and those settlers withdrawn In 1587, ninety-one men, seventeen woman, and nine children “sent” to colony Poorly managed and Governor John White left Returned three years later Croatoan message Colonists never found

8 Beginnings of an Empire In 1588, Spanish Armada attacked England Transported 30,000 troops England easily victorious Free to colonize in New World Richard Hakluyt and Sir Walter Raleigh promoted settlement of New World Principle Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation (1598) Offered hopes of easy riches James I stripped Raleigh of positions Imprisoned, eventually beheaded

9 Hard Economic Facts England covets Spain’s gold Spain had to use convoys to protect ships Still believed that Northwest Passage existed Spain’s economy has limits Failed to invest, economy declines Gold moved out of Spain to merchants Booming population created social problems in England Enclosure movement forced small farmers off land Wandering refugees gather in cities Hakluyt saw colonies as social safety valve

10 Private Enterprise Private stock-holding companies spread the financial risk among investors James I charters companies to “plant” colonies Plymouth Company Virginia Company of London Jamestown Christopher Newport Easily defended peninsula on James River Land was swamp poorly suited to agriculture Ill informed and prepared for problems of living in wilderness Not best type of settlers for the expedition

11 Survivors Powhatan Indians 30 to 40 thousand in Tsenahkommaka Disease and starvation brought population down to 38 in 1608 Starving times 500 more arrive 1608–1609 Population 60 by 1610 John Smith and Baron de la Warr enforced discipline on colony Settlers forced to farm Colony stabilized, population started to grow

12 The “Stinking Custom” Tobacco used by natives At first not popular in Old World Viewed as stinking custom and addictive Became popular in Europe in late 1500s John Rolfe improves tobacco production Brings West Indian tobacco seeds More appealing taste 3 shillings per pound Tobacco becomes major export in 1600s

13 Who Shall Plant the Fields Abundant land made it hard to hire labor Tobacco labor intensive Profits were high Attempts to enslave Native Americans fail Dutch brought African slaves in 1619 By 1660, 900 black Virginians but not much increase until 1700 White indentured servitude predominated Served 4, 5, or 7 years and then free to start new life “Headright system” Instituted in Virginia in acres per passage paid Land accumulated by landowners who imported servants Beginnings of great estates or plantations

14 The Massacre of 1622 Powhatanswere loosely confederated tribes of natives under a single chief Troubled, but relatively peaceful at first Number of settlers too small to be threat Colony grows and prospers In 1622 Powhatan under chief Opechancanough attack; settlers retaliate 1644 second attack but beaten back Powhatan extinct by 1685 In 1624 James I dissolves London Company Declares Jamestown a royal colony House of Burgesses continues

15 Maryland: A Second Tobacco Colony George Calvert Trusted advisor to James I Catholic noble In 1632, got Charles I to issue charter for colony north of Potomac River His son Cecilius would found colony In 1634, colony of Maryland founded Prospered as tobacco colony Hoped to be refuge for Catholics but always outnumbered Act of Toleration of 1649 Repealed by protestants in 1654

16 Other Beginnings France Few failed attempts in South Caroline & Florida Samuel de Champlain Quebec founded in 1608 New France grew slowly Traded with natives Spain Founded St. Augustine in 1565 Santa Fe established in 1609 Problems with Pueblos Spanish driven out in 1680 Restored power in 1690 New Netherland and New Sweden 1624 Dutch West India company established settlements between Connecticut and Delaware Rivers Capital at New Amsterdam on Manhattan Granted huge patroon ships or vast land tracts Peter Minuit established small number of Swedish settlements along Delaware River

17 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 2.1

18 Discussion Questions What effect did the Reformation have on the settlement of the New World? What was the significance of the Spanish Armada? What was its impact on the colonization of the Americas? Discuss the role of tobacco on the development of the early colonies? Compare and contrast English, French, Spanish and Dutch early settlements.


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