Presentation on theme: "“ Manliness tempered by civilizing restraint” By : Jock Phillips."— Presentation transcript:
“ Manliness tempered by civilizing restraint” By : Jock Phillips
Masculinity and Refinement Male Identity was formed based on interaction of muscular virtues of the frontier against a fear of femininity in civilized/urban community Rugby was born of the need to provide “a manly education tempered by civilizing restraints” Before “football” there was rough contest with no rules.
Rugby: Early Beginnings Got its start in English Public schools in the mid- 19 th century Civilizing process entered the schools Master’s of schools took traditional games with no rules and organized them, saw them as an important contribution to education Sought to replace the old masculine ideal with a new model ideal. Emphasized importance of a “gentleman” –polite, manner able, Christian bearing Used Rugby as an outlet for boys to exhibit physical strength, virility, within a controlled/supervised setting Rugby was formed with the specific idea to produce a “Manly Gentleman”- civilized yet still manly
New Zealand History of Rugby George Sale, son of a master at Rugby School, drew up the “Laws of Football as played at Rugby School” (1845) Charles Monro brought rules back when he returned from Sherborne First game was played at Nelson in 1870 A. Drew introduced Rugby in Wanganui and Taranaki Dunedin Tour (1877) essential in establishing rugby as dominating sport in the south By 1882 Rugby was described as the “national sport”, and by mid 1890’s were over 50,000 players and over 300 teams
Rise to Power Influence of immigrants from English public schools Colony attracted more men from less prestigious school, than those from elite where soccer was the dominant sport Rugby was able to be organized between different areas of New Zealand establishing inter- regional competition Rugby became more popular because early supporters were the only men who had time and money to travel through New Zealand playing Changes in Labor laws allowed men Saturday afternoons off to play Popularity spread through range of social classes because the masculinity of the sport appealed to both the Elite and Country Men An investigation of Manawatu Rugby players from showed that they represented almost exactly a cross-section of the male population Occupational variety among Rugby players ranged from farmers, to businessmen, to judges. Class barriers less exclusive, allowed popularity of the game to spread more quickly in New Zealand
Why not Cricket, Or Soccer? Did not require a lot of equipment, or careful preparation of the ground Not Affected by climate Provided a form of organized entertainment in a new society lacking long- established rituals. Rougher and more physical than other sports Display of “scientific masculinity” Scrimmaging- provided physical contact amongst team mates
Man’s Game Rugby was a Man’s game, which grew out of the rituals and culture of the pioneer male community” Emphasis on strength and physicality Trips allowed men to readily engage in - smoking, drinking, shooting Language of pioneer male community Gambling flourished alongside Rugby
Refinement of the Game Frederick Pilling (1877) was killed in a match- coroner stated that it was only “worthy of savages” Begin to be criticized more Seen as encouraging all the less desirable characteristics – cursing, drinking, etc Late 1880’s began to imposed more structure on the game, developed standardized set of rules Set official rules for scoring, number of players allowed, mating of skill with strength, referees giving primary authority, violent elements where abolished The New Zealand Rugby Football Union was established in 1892
Rugby Basics A rugby union team consists of 15 players: eight forwards, numbered 1 to 8, and seven backs, numbered 9 to 15 Two 40 minute halves, maximum of 10 minutes half-time break Try =5pts Conversion= 2 points Penalty & Drop Goal-3 Can only throw backwards Scrum- ow ow Lineouts- SNU SNU Ruck- fc fc
Fears of “Urban Decadence” New refinement of the game brought new supporters and spectators Fears about the effeminacy of men began to rise again Idea that nature of urban jobs would rob men of physical strength crucial to male identity Belief that extravagance of the urban life was making men soft Urbanization as an Agent of National Decadence- S. G. Findlay (1911) ; worried men would not be physically adequate to compete against other countries Beginning of century wide range of advertisements begin to appear local news papers for devices to restore men’s diminishing physical vitality.
Training the Muscular Gentleman Game functioned as a form of social control Game became more organized and ritualized Prepared young men for more serious life conflicts or competitions ‘On the Ball’ “ This life’s but a scrimmage we cannot get through But with many a kick and a blow, And then to the end, though we dodge and we fend, Still, that sure collar, ‘Death’ takes us low …. Remember, then, boys as we journey though life, There’s a goal to be reached by-and-by And he who runs true-why, he’s bound to get through, And perhaps kick a goal from his try.”
Why Rugby? determination and hard work Root in ritual, exercise in discipline Subservice of the individual to the group Emphasis of cooperation Generalized training in social conformity Taught Character or Manliness- emphasized self-discipline Embodied the dominant ideal of character in English public schools Became the core of the unofficial curriculum (1906) In several boys high schools in New Zealand, Rugby became mandatory
All Blacks 1888 New Zealand team won 80 out of 108 matches between Britain and Australia England and Wales tour in 1905, ‘All Blacks” win led New Zealanders to view rugby as essential to the New Zealand identity. Suggestion that the “country life” produced superior physical manhood Tour confirmed New Zealand’s role in the British empire, laid to rest fears of “urban decadence” ruining manhood Represented the “virility of the colony”
Haka Traditional Maroi war dance from New Zealand P96EDM P96EDM Performed mostly by New Zealand ruby teams, ritualistic, form of intimidation
Traditional & All Blacks "Kapa o Pango" “Ka Mate” Kapa o Pango kia whakawhenua au i ahau! Hī aue, hī! Ko Aotearoa e ngunguru nei! Au, au, aue hā! Ko Kapa o Pango e ngunguru nei! Au, au, aue hā! I āhahā! Ka tū te ihiihi Ka tū te wanawana Ki runga ki te rangi e tū iho nei, tū iho nei, hī Ponga rā! Kapa o Pango, aue hī! Ponga rā! Kapa o Pango, aue hī, hā! All Black, let me become one with the land This our land that rumbles It’s my time! It’s my moment This defines us as the All Blacks It’s my time! It’s my moment! Our dominance, Our supremacy will triumph! And be placed on high !Sliver fern! All Blacks! Silver fern! All Blacks! Slap the hands against the thighs! Puff out the chest. Bend the knees! Let the hip follow! Stomp the feet as hard as you can! 'I die, I die, 'I live, 'I die, 'I die 'I live, This is the hairy man...Who caused the sun to shine again for me Up the ladder, Up the ladder Up to the top The sun shines! Rise!
Rugby’s Blessings Physical strength Lessons of dedication and hard work Mode of thinking- self- sacrificing, common goal oriented Emphasis on team work and cooperation Rooted in ritual and morality