Presentation on theme: "New Views on Government"— Presentation transcript:
1New Views on Government As the Enlightenment began, European thinkers began looking for ways to apply reason in order to improve the human condition.English thinker, wrote views of government in LeviathanAbsolute monarchy bestBelieved people needed government to impose orderPeople selfish, greedyShould exchange some freedoms for peace, safety, orderSocial contractThomas HobbesEnglish philosopher, believed all people born equalGovernment should protect people’s natural rightsMonarchs not chosen by GodGovernment by consentPower limited by lawsIdeas foundation for modern democracyJohn Locke
2The Enlightenment in Europe SECTION2The Enlightenment in EuropeTwo Views on GovernmentNew Ways of Thinking• Scientific Revolution spurs reassessment of manyprevailing ideas- Europeans seek insights into society during 1600s,1700s• Leads to the Enlightenment—a movement stressingreason and thoughtHobbes’s Social Contract• Hobbes distrusts humans, favors strong governmentto keep order• Promotes social contract—getting order by givingpower to monarchContinued . . .NEXT
3Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Applied Newton to the nature of beingReality is bodies and motionRemoved God from philosophy, not from religionReligious critics branded Hobbes a hereticHumans are purely material: the body (monistic)Not concerned with souls or minds because these cannot be observed or measured and so cannot be proven to existHumans are the sum of their physical partsDeterministic—all human thoughts and actions are determined by past actions and environment and not by free will
4Thomas HobbesThomas Hobbes believed that all humans are naturally selfish and wicked and prone to fighting.He said that in order to escape a bleak life, people should give up their rights to a strong leader who would give them law and order.This is called the social contract.
5Thomas Hobbes Leviathan 1651 Felt the horrors of the English Civil War convinced him that all humans were naturally selfish and wickedSocial contract- in order to escape a bleak life, people gave up their rights to a strong ruler—they gained law and orderHe felt that a government as an absolute monarchy was the right choice
6Thomas Hobbes ( )“The obligation of subjects to the sovereign is understood to last as long, and no longer, than the power lasteth by which he can protect them.”Sovereign free to rule- must act in interest of subjectsMonarchy best form of govt.All powerful, centralize stateIf ruler fails to ensure stability, society willdissolve into a state of nature/chaos until new‘contract’ is madeDenies the people’s right to rebel in suchinstancesMost famous work is Leviathan (1651)response to English Civil War
7Hobbes’ Famous WorksLeviathan Established the agenda for nearly subsequent Western Political PhilosophyThe book concerns the structure of societyIn the book Hobbes argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute monarchThe social contract was made to institute a state that would provide for the "peace and defense" of the people, the contract would become void if the government no longer protected its citizens. In such a case, man would automatically return to a state of nature until the creation of a new social contract.
9LeviathanMetaphor for the state, the Leviathan is described as an artificial person whose body is made up of all the bodies of its citizens, who are the literal members of the Leviathan's body.The head of the Leviathan is the sovereign.The Leviathan is constructed through contract by people in the state of nature in order to escape the horrors of this natural condition.The power of the Leviathan protects them from the abuses of one another."covenant" or "social contract," contract is the act of giving up certain natural rights and transferring them to someone else, on the condition that everyone else involved in making the contract also simultaneously gives up their rights.People agreeing to the contract retain only those rights over others that they are content for everyone else to retain over them.
10Absolutism: to manage behavior The Leviathan, or sea monster, represents the all powerful government Hobbes believed exist to avoid chaosHobbes absolute ruler
12Thomas Hobbes. Leviathan “The life without rule of law is the life of every man against every man which is solitary, dull brutish, nasty and short.”Hobbes concluded that upon death the individual is glad to find a hole to crawl out of this world from. His concept Leviathan is a giant restrained by the chains of the people. The sum of all is greater than the strength of any one thus created a dynamic of protection of ones life and labors from the despotic intentions of natural man.
13Thomas HobbesLeviathan 1651 Written in exile during the Puritan WarStressed the role of reason, social control to create a commonwealth where all could prosperStudent of the Enlightenment stressing logic and reason of hard science Bacon, Newton, Descartes, Galileo
15Hobbes View on Government it is unnatural for man to put himself under control of a government, but knows it is rational to do soif we give up our rights to the government, the government will protect all the people and ensure peacepower comes from the people not God; he rejected divine rightbelieved the best form of government was an enlightened despot; a leviathan that will protect the people and make decisions that are best for the majoritygovernments are created to protect people from their own selfishness and greednot possible to have peace and democracy because people are only interested in promoting their own interests
16Hobbes Views on Mankind humans are basically selfish by naturebecause people are equal and cannot accept this, they constantly compete to prove they are betterthis competition leads to violencepeople are motivated by a desire for powerpeople should not be trusted to make their own decisionscan apply the principles of mechanics and motion to humans:a)de corpore: behavior of physical lifeb)de homine: actions of the body and mindc)de cine: man’s organized social life“perpetual and restless desire (for) power…that ceases only in death”“If men are not naturally in a state of war, why do they always carry arms and why do they have keys to lock their doors?”- This quote supports the view that men are competitive by nature and are motivated for desire for power
17Hobbes views on Freedom and Liberty Believed that freedom and peace could not coexisteveryone should have the right to own property
18Historical or Contemporary Examples to Support Hobbes Views English Civil WarSuccess of Enlightened Despots
19Locke’s Natural Rights SECTION2continued Two Views on GovernmentLocke’s Natural Rights• Philosopher John Locke says government gets power from the people• Stresses that people have a right to overthrow an unjust governmentNEXT
20John Locke held a different view because he felt that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Because of this view Locke favored the idea of self-government instead of an absolute monarchy.
21John LockeHe believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselvesTwo Treatises on GovernmentThree natural rightsLifeLibertyPropertyFoundation of modern democracies.Favored limited governmental rule.
22John Locke John Locke (1632-1704): Social realist Influenced American writers of ConstitutionBelieved mind was a tabula rasa (blank slate)Senses act on mind to train all aspects of a personBody is important for human developmentIntellectual pursuits are more important (dualist)Argued for the health of the studentProper diet and exercise“A sound mind in a sound body”
23Two Treatises of Government (1690) John Locke ( )Two Treatises of Government (1690)Mankind naturally in state of anarchy (no government)Individuals left to own device would act with self-interestMankind must enter into a political society to ensure stabilityGovernment therefore necessary, butonly if it acts in the interest of thepeople- Social Contract TheoryPeople have right to rebel in such casesGlorious Revolution (1688)
25Locke believed all people were born with 3 “natural rights” Right to LifeRight to LibertyRight to PropertyLocke believed government was responsible for protecting these rights and could be overthrown if it failed.This is consistent with democracy - - people have the right to be in charge
26Locke’s View on Mankind Man has the ability to reason and compromiseMan kind is innately goodMan has the ability to think and problem-solveMan is born with a blank mind and shaped by his experiences and educationMan uses his five senses to learn about the world. He uses this information to develop ideasAll men are equalMen should help one anotherHappiness is determined by the will of the peopleMan's desire to pursue one's happiness is inborn.
27John Locke Studied human reason, rationale Used empirical studies to interpret human behaviorIndividuals are autonomous-no longer dependent on Church or King to make decisionsEach person free to decide personal matterEach person free to decide matters of the stateOpposes absolute ideas of governance
28Locke’s View on Government. Did not believe in divine rightBelieved in a constitutional monarchy with limited powers and three branches of governmentSocial Contract: government is formed with the consent of the people; if the government fails to protect the people, the people have the right to revolt against the governmentGovernments are formed to protect the people and their rights
29John Locke View of the state of nature (pre-civil society) Human beings are rational, free & equal. They are capable of running their own lives.They have rights to life, health, liberty and possessions that no one should harm.Yet there are no mechanisms (no police, no courts, etc.) to ensure that the strong do not prey upon the weak.
30John Locke, continuedTo secure their rights, therefore, people give up some freedom and form government.The government’s purpose is to protect rights. It is a type of contract.The people retain their sovereignty, and the government is just a mechanism to help them.The individual is superior to the government.
31John Locke, continuedIf government fails to protect those rights and becomes tyrannical, then the contract is null and void.The government loses its legitimacy, and people are free to make a new government. [The Second Treatise on Government]Called a “right of revolution.”
32Locke’s Views on Freedom Slavery is wrongWomen have the ability to reason, and should be treated as equals to menFreedom of religion but only for forms of Protestantism; not for Catholics, Jews, or MuslimsEveryone should have the right to life, liberty, and property
33Locke’s Views on Knowledge Knowledge reduces intolerance, bigotry, and violenceMore you know and understand, less you have to argue aboutThoughts should be based on reasonLaw of nature can be observed through experiments
34John Locke: Essay on Human Understanding This was his major essay on people and how individuals learn.Believed that people are born with minds like a blank slate, tabula rasa, and what they know is based on experiences in their life.Saw inductive reasoning, reasoning that takes specific examples and attempts to draw general conclusions, as a way to establish laws for human behavior.
35John Locke: Essay Concerning the True Extent and End of Civil Government In this essay, Locke states that all individuals are born equal and entitled to some basic rights.The government is designed to protect people’s rights.When it ceases to do this, the people should revolt and form a new government.
36Enlightenment influences John Locke ( )“An Essay Concerning Human Understanding”Tabula rasaKnowledge is sensoryDenied inherited abilityRejected “original sin” This is key! Why??????
37Enlightenment Influences John Locke ( )Every person has right to life, liberty, and property (except slaves)Necessary for……..Educational reform, freedom of the press, religious toleration
38Historical or Contemporary Examples to Support Locke’s Views Success of the American Revolution:a) Declaration of Independenceb) Preamble to Constitutionc) The Constitution
39Contrast of Locke and Hobbes Two Treatises of GovernmentGovernment: voluntary association of humans acting in their self-interestHumans are reasonable and cooperativePower of the legislature: the peoplePeople could overthrow government and replace with better oneHOBBESLeviathanAll-powerful sovereign should rule stupid humansHumans: greedy and violentPower of the executive: the government should be an enlightened despot