Presentation on theme: "1 Presented by July-2013, IIM Indore. 2 3 After Independence, there was tussle between- Gandhian vision:- More village Centric & less intensively."— Presentation transcript:
1 Presented by July-2013, IIM Indore
3 After Independence, there was tussle between- Gandhian vision:- More village Centric & less intensively industry-focused. Nehruian vision:- Heavy industrialisation & megaprojects. The country embarked upon a top-down, investment-heavy and environmentally-questionable project of ‘development’. Result:- Nominal GDP ranked 4 out of 181 (2011) GDP Growth Rate ranked 5 out of 215 (2010) Index of Economic Freedom, ranked 124 out of 179 (2011) Per capita GDP ranked 138 out of 183 (2010) UN Human Development Index, ranked 119 out of 177 (2010)
4 Article 21 of the Constitution guarantees to every Indian citizen the right to life with dignity. The development projects deprive those affected of this basic right by affecting their livelihoods and sources of sustenance. Displaced Persons or DP’s:- Those are forced to move out of their land/Home. Project Affected Persons or PAP’s:- Those who lose their livelihood &/or assets without being displaced. For e.g.:-Sometimes, common property resources (CPRs) like forests, fishing grounds etc., which are their livelihoods are acquired. Women, Children's, Old People, Physically Disabled & Trial's, are most disadvantaged & vulnerable groups as “Those who own nothing; lose nothing and therefore get nothing” and hence not included in policy making.
5 Michael Cernea’s model of overall impoverishment process (1995), Landlessness & Change in Land Holding Pattern. Joblessness & Occupational Shifts Homelessness Loss of Common Property Rights Marginalisation Food insecurity Mortality Social Disorganisation Other Social Impacts:- Loss of Self-esteem and Identity Loss of Culture Loss of Relationship and belongingness. Psychological Impact Loss of time-honoured sacred places of worship Break-up of community cohesion Loss of archaeological sites and other cultural property
Any person or organisation who can be positively or negatively impacted by, or cause an impact on the actions of a company. (Freeman, 1984) Stakeholder Analysis is the process of identifying individuals or groups that are likely to affect or be affected by a proposed action, and sorting them according to their impact on the action and the impact the action will have on them. Identify Most Vulnerable stakeholders and Use ICT tools to include them. 6 High Interest Low Interest Low Power High Power
7 High Interest Low Interest Low Power High Power It is important to include DP/PAP as they have low power & High interest. These are socially excluded & most disadvantaged segment of the society. Their pain can be reduced and participation can be increased using features of ICT. Following slide explains, how ICT can improve Rehabilitation and Resettlement practice in India as per NPRR-2007.
8 1) ICT for Issuing Legal Notifications & Information dissemination and sharing. 2) ICT for Social Inclusion during SIA Study. 3) ICT for Social Inclusion during Compensation. 4) ICT for Social Inclusion during R&R Plan. 5) ICT for Social Inclusion during award of Grants & schemes.
9 R&R can be made as a dedicated portal for facilitating DP/PAP, with following methodology- 1) Develop Module for each component on a portal: One Stop Solution. 2) Integration of Database with other departments/Agencies 3) With the help of private partner (like CSC) or government machinery, (like GP or School) start a outlet at each affected village with dedicated internet connection. 4) DP/PAP need not travel to taluka/district at various offices to get the service/Submit request. 5) No charges for DP/PAP for assessing information or submitting request. It will be borne by PIA. 6) Information will be stored at State Data Centre in standard format and can be assessed at outlet at village on 24x7 basis.
10 SIA Study has following steps and ICT is helpful in each of the step. 1) Define Impact Area: Use GIS tools [Cost- effective Cloud Computing services are available for GIS maps] 2) Identify Data Requirements and their Sources: [Create Online Database using Open Software's having interoperability] 3) Involve All Affected Stakeholders: [Create the database of mobile number of DP/PAP and intimate them through SMS.] 4) Conduct Screening: [Using ICT tools prioritize the impacts and their severity potential] 1) Carry Out Scoping in the Field: [Physical Site Visit & Data Collection-Photography, image processing can help] 2) Prepare a Socioeconomic Profile of Baseline Condition: [Create a standard template for data and statistics] 3) Survey of Host Population: [Population, demographics, Earning etc.] 4) Identify and Assess the Impacts: [Create a standard template] 5) Develop a Mitigation Plan: [avoid displacement/minimize it/compensate for adverse impacts]
11 1) Estimate the cost of Assets attached to land:- ICT Components:- Use standard template for Valuation for house, well, trees, crops-Multi- department integration. Create Photographic Recording as a Evidence. Estimate Market Value of Land: Use database of Registration Department for past sale deeds 2) Consider the Land Records for Irrigated/Un-irrigated land, title check and other details. Consider co-ownership of Women in property. ICT Components:- Interlinked Database with Revenue Department. 3) Use Satellite Photographs [e.g. Digitalized maps of NRSA, MRSAC etc. to access the physical boundaries of land] and create various layers like ownership details, land characteristics, etc. ICT Components:- Using GIS as a Cloud Service of Maharashtra DIT, develop Digital Interactive Maps.
12 4) Publish the compensation details along with valuation sheet on a portal. ICT Components: Develop a module on a portal for Information dissemination. 5) Create a portal through which DP/PAP can register their complaint/feedback. ICT Components: Develop Online Grievance Redressal System or interlink with Online Public Grievance Lodging and Monitoring System of DARPG. 6) Update the valuation for valid complaints and communicate the rejection with reason through portal and SMS service to DP/PAP. ICT Components: Database Management. 7) Pay the compensation to DP/PAP by transferring money directly to their bank account through RTGS/NEFT. ICT Components: Aadhar Based Money Transfer Mechanism.
13 1) Estimation of Land Required for Resettlement Colony: [Use Digital database of Revenue Department] 2) Consider the number of families, amenities (like road, school, Government office, open space etc.), and expansion of village. 3) Prepare proposed layout of village by involving DP/PAP by site visit and using digital model of proposed village. 4) Allot the nearby government land to the marginalized farmers using database of Revenue Department. Following facilities should be provided in Resettlement colony as per NPRR-2007: 1) Educational Buildings 2) Internal/Approach Roads with Drainage facility. 3) Electrification 4) Primary Health Centre 5) Water Supply 6) Utility Centre 7) Bus Stop ICT is helpful in gathering public requirements by through portal or specially developed mobile app.
14 Digital Database is used to identify real beneficiary for various schemes, as per NPRR Use Aadhar Based Money Transfer mechanism. Recruitment and Award of work /skill development: Seniority & Database of employments provided. Subsistence allowances: Monthly subsistence allowance = 25 day minimum agricultural wages for a period of one year from the date of displacement. Pension for life to vulnerable person: Rs. 500/- per month for life. CPR Compensation:- Rs Lakhs/Ha to trial's for loss of forest land. Livelihood Grants: Landless families to provide Rs100/- or Current Wage per day for 1000 days. One Time Financial Assistance for self employed:- Rs. 25,000/- for construction of working shed or shop. Transportation grant: Rs. 20,000/- to each displaced for transportation of the household goods, cattle etc. Cattle shed grant: Rs. 15,000/- to each displaced family having cattle for construction of cattle shed.
15 Empower DP/PAP Incorporate Needs of DP/PAP Treat DP/PAP as beneficiaries Gender Neutral approach Strengthen Society Improves Institutional efficiency Facilitates Community Development Power Shift- Beneficiary Vs DP/PAP
16 In India, large dams are the single largest cause of displacement since independence. According to N.C. Saxena (the then Secretary, MoRD) total number of persons displaced due to large dams in India is 40 million in 2000 (i.e. 4 percent of population). Approx. on an average, 31,000 persons are affected per large dam. Approx. on an average 6000 families are affected per large dam. Approx. on an average 5 villages per large dam are affected. Society and international organizations are more sensitive to refugees than DP/PAP. This module will try to focus DP/PAP for their social inclusion.
17 1) World Development Report, 2006: Equity and Development by World Bank. 2) Study Material of Course Social Inclusion for Development of EPGP-EG at IIM Indore July ) IGNOU Study Material of Course Post Graduate Diploma in Participatory Management of Displacement, Resettlement and Rehabilitation (PGDMRR) 4) ICT as Enablers of Development: A Microsoft White Paper, Dec ) Report of a Research Project on Social Impact Assessment of R&R Policies and Packages in India, Council for Social Development, Aug ) Asian Development Bank's (ADB) Policy of Involuntary Resettlement, ) World Bank’s Policy on Rehabilitation and Resettlement 8) Land Acquisition Act ) National Rehabilitation & Resettlement Policy, ) Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2011 (Introduced in Loksabha; now with RD) 11) National Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation & Resettlement Bill, 2011 (Draft) 12) Maharashtra Project Affected Persons Rehabilitation Act, 1976 (amended in 1986 &1999)