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1By: Margaret, Marlo, Sarah and Branda Chapter 7 Assessing and Teaching Reading: Phonological Awareness, Phonics, and Word RecognitionBy: Margaret, Marlo, Sarah and Branda
2Teaching ReadingSpecial Education teachers spend a great deal of time teaching reading. Why is it so important?Reading is a prerequisite skill for content-area classes such as social studies and science.Reading is essential for employment.If students do not learn to read by the end of third grade, their chances of having reading difficulties through adulthood is 50%.
3Reading and Reading Instruction When teaching reading, there are two overarching concepts:Reading is a skilled and strategic process in which learning to decode and read words accurately and rapidly is essential: Reading requires using the attentional, perceptual, memory, and retrieval processes to automatically identify or decode words. Decoding or word recognition is the process of automatically recognizing words. When a word is unknown, the reader uses syntax and context to help decode.Students with learning disabilities have a particularly difficult time demonstrating how to blend and segment words. This causes them to focus more on the process of decoding rather than comprehension.
4Emergent and Beginning Readers Emergent Readers:Pretend to read favorite print.Can read what they have written, even if no one else can.Recognize some concrete words (i.e. names, environment)Recognize and generate rhyming words.Name letters and words that begin with that letter.Beginning Readers:Identify letters by nameSay the common sounds of letters.Blend the sounds represented by letters into decodable words.Read irregular words.Read words, then sentences, and then longer text.
5Reading and Reading Instruction (cont’d) The second overarching concept is:Reading entails understanding the text and depends on active engagement and interpretation by the reader: When readers read they make predictions, summarize, question and clarify when concepts are not clear.Students who have trouble reading do not automatically monitor their comprehension or engage in strategic behavior to restore meaning.
6Phonological Awareness, Letter-Sound Correspondence, and Phonics Phonological Awareness: knowing and demonstrating that spoken language can be broken down into smaller units (words, syllables, phonemes), which can be manipulated within an alphabetic system.Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize the smallest sound units of spoken language and how they can be separated, blended and manipulated.In order to apply these skills to reading, they need to understand phonics (how sound maps to print or knowing how the letter sounds and names relate to each other).Children who have problems with blending and segmenting have the most difficulty reading.
7Development of Phonological Awareness The primary focus of phonemic awareness with young children is not rhyming, but rather the focus of individual sounds and how each sound can be represented by a letter or group of letters. Skills such as rhyming and alliteration come later.The most important goal of phonemic awareness is learning to manipulate sounds by blending and segmenting. Linking sounds to print should be the immediate goal.Developmental sequence is important when teaching reading. For example, teaching segmenting and blending words and syllables before segmenting and blending onset-rimes and phonemes.Children always develop skills at different times, therefore instruction at phoneme level should never be delayed due to lack of a skill.
8Teaching Phonological Awareness and Phonics The majority students who are at risk for reading difficulties can benefit most from explicit instruction phonological awareness, particularly blending, segmenting, and manipulating sounds.Teaching phonological awareness includes:Listening for words with the same soundClapping the number of words in a sentence, syllables in a words, and phonemes in wordsBlending and segmenting words by syllables and soundsSegmenting and manipulating sounds and syllables
9Elkonin ProcedureThe Elkonin Procedure is a technique used to assist in blending and segmenting skills.This is a phonological task where students listen to a word and push a marker, block, or other small object into a printed square for each sound they hear. As students gain knowledge of the letter-sound relationships they can write letters in the boxes.When teaching students who are having difficulty, it is important to know the difficulties and focus instruction according to the level of development.
10Guidelines for Teaching Phonological Awareness Consider the students’ levels of development and the tasks that need to be mastered.MODEL each activity.Use manipulative and movement to make auditory and oral tasks more visible.Move from easier to more difficult tasks considering level of development (syllables, onset-rimes, phonemes), phoneme position (initial, final, medial), number of sounds in a word, and phonological features of the words (consonants are easier than stops or clipped sounds).Provide feedback and opportunities for practice and review.Make learning fun.
11Response to Intervention How do we know if students are responding to instruction?Have students received scientifically based reading instruction from their classroom teacher?Have students received adequate opportunities to respond, obtain feedback, and see modeling to scaffold their learning?How does the performance of students with low response compare to other students in the class?Have the students with low phonemic awareness received small group opportunities?Is progress monitoring data available to show the scope of the student’s progress?
12Progress MonitoringProgress monitoring in phonemic awareness assists teachers in identifying students who are at risk for failing to acquire phonemic awareness skills.These tests and progress-monitoring measures may be useful to make decisions about what methods will accurately measure student progress:STAR: Early Literacy: computer-adaptive procedure that provides ongoing assessment of early literacy skills.AIMSweb Systems: Offer progress monitoring tools for letter naming, letter sound, phoneme segmentation, and nonsense word fluency.YOP-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation- Students segment phonemes and are given credit if they say all the sounds in the word correctly.Phone-Segmentation Fluency- Students are given 60 seconds to get as many phonemes correct as possible.Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP)- Assesses phonological awareness, phonological memory, and rapid naming ability.
13Teaching Letter-Sound Correspondences: Consonants The largest division of phonemes is consonants (C) or vowels (V).Voiced and Voiceless consonants can be taught by allowing students to place their fingers on their larynxes and feeling the vibrations. This method allows them to decode or spell a word.Important points to remember when teaching consonants:CVC words that begin with continuants(can be blended smoothly with the next sound: f, s, v, w, z, sh, zh, th) and end with stops(clipped sounds: b, d, g ,j, k, p, t) are generally the easiest for blending the sounds.In some programs, when blending stops it is suggested to “bounce the stop sounds” , such as /b-b-b-a-t-t-t/ for bat.Nasal sounds are difficult to hear, sound different in the middle of words, and are often omitted or substituted by emergent readers and writers.Students may have problems hearing the difference between /wh/ and /w. because many Americans pronounce them in the same manner (witch and which).The sounds /r/ and /l/ can be difficult for some students because they ate some of the last sounds students learn to articulate and because their pronunciation varies across languages.When students omit sounds in words it is helpful to have them compare the words in written form to see the letter they have omitted.
14Teaching Letter- Sound Correspondences: Vowels The vowel sounds have different spelling patterns. Sometimes the same spelling pattern has different sounds (‘ea” in beat and bread).For students with decoding difficulties, it is helpful to teach the frequency of the sounds for a vowel combination so when decoding an unfamiliar word, they can try the various sounds.Schwa is the vowel sound that is often found in unaccented syllables (suppose, familiar, sofa, mission) and is the most frequently occurring vowel sound.Students who are learning English as a second language may not have fluency in all English sounds.Common phonological confusions:/b/ pronounced as /p/, /v/ pronounced as /b/, /ch/ pronounced as /sh/, /j/ pronounced as /h/, /l/ pronounced as /y/
15Guidelines for Teaching Letter- Sound Correspondences Teaching a core set of frequently used consonants and short vowel sounds that represent clear sounds and nonreversible letter forms (/a/, /i/, /d/, /f/, /g/, /h/, /l/, /n/, /p/, /s/, /t/).Beginning immediately to blend and segment sounds to read and spell the words and read the words in decodable text.Separating the introduction of letter sounds with similar auditory or visual features.Using a consistent keyword to assist students in hearing and remembering the sound (a for apple).Teaching that some letters can represent more than one sound.Teaching that different letters can make the same sound (s and c).Teaching that sound scan be represented by a single letter or combination of letters.Adding a kinesthetic component by having students trace or write the letter as they say the sound.Having students use mirrors and feel their mouths to see and feel how sounds are different.Color- coding consonant and vowel so that the two categories of sound are highlighted.
16Letter-Sound Correspondences Knowing letter-sound correspondences is a key element in understanding the alphabetic principle and learning to decode and spell unknown words.However, if letter-sound relationships are not put to use, they will be ineffective.Students need to understand the purpose for the relationships and how to apply them to reading and writing activities.Students must be able to apply knowledge in phonological awareness, letter-sound relationships, and the alphabetic principle to word identification and decoding.
17Word Identification, Decoding, and Word Study By: Sarah
18What’s a Sight Word?A word a student can read quickly and automatically with little delayAccessed from memory
19Decoding Strategies for Identifying Words Phonics AnalysisOnset-RimeSynthetic and Analytic PhonicsStructure AnalysisSyllabicationAutomatic Word RecognitionSyntax and Semantic
20Phonic AnalysisIdentify and Blend Letter-Sound Correspondence into WordsConverting letters in to soundsBlending sounds to form a wordSearching memory to find a known word that resembles those blended sounds.
21Ways to Teach PhonicsCue the student to say each sound and then have them say it fast.Demonstrate and have the student point to each letter as they say the sound and then have the student sweep their hand under the word when saying it.Place letters apart when saying the sounds, and then push the letters together when you say it fast.Begin with a simple VC and CVC words then move to more complex sound patterns
22Onset-Rime Use common spelling patterns to decode words by blending. Also know as word families
23Synthetic and Analytic Phonics Teaching sound by sound( /p/ /a/ /n/) = pan
24Structure AnalysisUse knowledge of word structures such as compound words, root words, suffixes, prefixes, endings to decode words and assist with meaning
25Syllabication Use common types of syllables When teaching emphasize that each syllable has one vowel soundGame time
26Automatic Word Recognition Automatically recognize high frequency words and less phonetically frequent wordsLook around the room
27Syntax and Semantics Word Order (syntax) Context (semantics) Ask the student:“Does that make sense?”“Does that sound right?”Decoding StepsPhonicsStructural AnalysisSyllabicationThen cross check from comprehension (syntax/semantics)
29How can the use of explicit and implicit code instruction be compared? Jamal:Third GraderLowest reading level in his class (1st grade)Not making progressTeacher helps him pronounce 30% of wordsCannot remember previously know wordsKnows fewer than 30 sight wordsApplies inconsistent strategiesHas difficulty with letter-sound relationships (cannot sound-out)Has difficulty blendingGenerally gets the meaning of a textGood oral skillsGood life referencesMath skills are third gradeLupita:Third GraderReading at a 1st grade levelSight vocabulary of 40 words in Spanish and 25 in EnglishIs in a bilingual program that initially taught reading in Spanish and then transitioned to more English last yearReading is slow and laboriousHas difficulty remembering wordsDecoding strategies rely on sounding out wordsDoes not know many of the letter-sound relationshipsHas problems blendingOral language in both languages is lowShy about responding in classBasic math is understood but not word problems
30Tips for the Beginning In the beginning… If school has RTI… Determine student’s current strategies as well as what has been used in the pastInstructional strategies, techniques, approachesHow consistently, for how long and with what successIf school has RTI…Data about past reading experiences may be available
31Explicit vs. Implicit“Beginning reading approaches that emphasize explicit, direct teaching of phonological awareness and word identification strategies that rely on using phonics, onset-rime, and structural analysis result in greater gains in word recognition and comprehension than approaches in which phonological awareness and phonics are more implicitly taught (National Reading Panel, 2000).”
32Explicit vs. Implicit Explicit Implicit Synthetic phonics Builds from part to wholeBegins with instruction of letters with their associated soundsThen teaches blending and building (blending sounds into syllables and then into words)ImplicitAnalytical phonicsMoves from whole o the smallest partPhonemes are not pronounced in isolationAnalyze a set of words for commonalitiesUse comparison and identification to deduce what to readBlending and building are not taughtUse shape, beginning and ending words and context clues
33Explicit Code Instruction Emphasizes three instructional features:Systematic instruction of letter-sound correspondenceScaffolded instructionMultiple opportunities for practice and reviewReading materials for these approaches are controlled aka decodable text.
34Explicit Code Instruction Linguistic Approach: Onset-Rime and Word FamiliesUses controlled text and word families (-at, -ight, and –ent) to teach word recognition. Particularly useful for students with reading problems.A category: CVC wordsB category: CVCe wordsC category: long-vowels and vowel pairsD category: r-controlled vowels
35Explicit Code Instruction Linguistic Approach: Onset-Rime and Word Families (Evidence-Based Practice)Procedures: Built on onset-rimeIn teaching onset-rime, words are segmented and blended at the onset-rime level and taught in related groups or “Word Families”Readers such as 7-13 give extensive practice with word familiesWhen a student can’t identify a word family word…Synthetic decodingAnalogy
36Explicit Code Instruction Linguistic Approach: Onset-Rime and Word Families (Evidence-Based Practice)Comments and Cautions:Some students will benefit from onset-rime and phoneme level decoding (c-a-t vs c-at)Texts provide limited opportunities for development of comprehensionSome words introduced in a family may represent unfamiliar concepts such as “the fog in the bog.”
37Explicit Code Instruction Reading Mastery and Corrective ReadingHighly structured, systematic reading programs use direct instruction model for teachingDirectly teach individual sound-symbol relationships, blending of sounds, and how to buildDecoding and comprehensionReading Mastery: elementary levelCorrective Reading: grades 4 through 12Taught in small to medium sized groups
38Explicit Code Instruction Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading (Evidence-Based Practice)Procedures: Built on Principles of direct instructionSome include:Rely on strategiesIntroduction, guided practice, independent practice, reviewOne skill at a timePrerequisite skills taught firstPatterns taught before exceptions (gave and made before have)Easy skills taught before more difficult onesMonitorReinforceTeachers are given specific procedures and scripted lessonsCorrective Reading: Standard Print/ Reading Mastery: Modified Print at Beginning
39Explicit Code Instruction Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading (Evidence-Based Practice)Comments and Cautions:Effective for improving reading skills of students with reading difficulties and students with disadvantaged backgroundsAlso good for students with behavior problemsHeavy on oral presentation and responsesHighly scripted, modifications are difficultNon-standard print used in Reading Mastery makes access more difficult
40Explicit Code Instruction Phonic Remedial Reading LessonsDeveloped in 1930’s for students with mild mental retardationDirect instructionMinimal changeOne response to one symbolProgress form easy to hardFrequent review and over-learningCorrective feedbackVerbal mediationMultisensory learningIntensive- to be used with no more than 2 – 3 students
41Explicit Code Instruction Phonic Remedial Reading Lessons (Evidence-Based Practice)Procedures:Developing readiness (learning sound-symbol associations)Each lesson sound out each word in a line, one letter at a time, then give complete wordBarely any change from lesson to lesson (maybe just the first consonant)Progress to slowly change more and more of the words (first consonant, last consonant, both, space between letters)
42Explicit Code Instruction Phonic Remedial Reading Lessons (Evidence-Based Practice)Comments and Cautions:Systematic and intensePlaces little emphasis on comprehensionSuggest using other books to give opportunities for other identification and comprehension
43Explicit Code Instruction English-Language Learners and Reading DifficultiesTo What extent are the practices identified for phonological awareness and phonics appropriate for students who are ELL’s?If they are appropriate, how can teachers facilitate their acquisition of these skills in English?We know much more about teaching students with reading difficulties who are English speaking than those who are ELL’s.Is a growing base of informationGiven direct early instruction in reading benefitedBilingual students with significant reading problems who participated in 22 tutoring sessions (explicit approach) significantly improved compared to controlsMore structured, systematic approach resulted in better outcomes than approaches that didn’t include these tacticsYoung students taught to read in English made many gains and sustained them, outperforming comparison studentsBalance is Key
44Explicit Code Instruction Multisensory Structured Language InstructionSystematic, explicit, using alphabetic principal, phonics and structural analysis, decoding and incorporate visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile modalitiesDeveloped in 1930’sBuild associations between modalitiesTracing words with fingerSpelling through writingDesigned for students with dyslexia or who are experiencing difficulties learning to read
45Explicit Code Instruction Multisensory Structured Language InstructionInstructional FeaturesMultisensory presentationMoves from easy to difficult and provides reviewExplicit teaching of all concepts, skills and strategiesSystematic practice of decoding and spelling skills (word, sentence and text levels)Diagnostic teaching (more individual)Synthetic methods (parts to whole & whole broken down to parts)
46Explicit Code Instruction Multisensory Structured Language Instruction (Evidence-Based Practice)Comments and Cautions:Designed and used as remedial programs for students who have not learned to read successfully in another programClinical case studies show their benefit when teaching older students with reading disabilities (make substantial gains)Best employed by teachers who have been trained in multisensory proceduresIn general, programs emphasize decoding skills an do not build comprehension skills (combine)
47Explicit Code Instruction Word Study: Making Words, Word Building and Word WallsStressed as a way of learning relationships between speech sounds and print, of building word recognition and spelling skills, and of developing vocabularyLearning and behavior problems: opportunities to construct words using magnetic letters, letter tiles or laminated letters provides experience in manipulating sounds to find out how the words are affected.EX: Start with letters /s/, /t/, /r/, /n/, and /a/. Ask what two words make the word “at?” Ask students to add a letter sound to the beginning to make “sat.” Progress to using all of the magnetic letters to create different words.
48Explicit Code Instruction Word Study: Making Words, Word Building and Word Walls (Evidence-Based Practice)Procedures:Many activities – word sorts, building words, word wallsMaking words: specific set of letters, make series of words starting with easiest number of letters and moving to harder ones until the “mystery” word (Scratch) is made.Step 1Give students bag of required letters and have them identify them. Teacher writes a numeral on the board for the number of letters the students are to put in their word. Usually start with two such as “at.” Then moving to three “cat” or “art.” Eventually use all letters.Step 2Word Sorting: Put up all the words on a sentence strip and ask students how they are alike. Have them sort by spelling patterns. Find all the “c” words or “art” words so that students can see patterns.Step 3Making Words Quickly: Making Words Log – Have students write as many words as they can in 2 minutes using that day’s letters
49Explicit Code Instruction Word Study: Making Words, Word Building and Word Walls (Evidence-Based Practice)Comments and Cautions:Effective and efficient way to organize word identification instructionStudents report they enjoy the activityMay be important to develop other activities that will teach word families to less able readers
51Implicit Code Instruction Places more emphasis on context clues (pictures, clues, etc.)Teaches initial site wordsEmphasis on Sentence level not phoneme level (“I see dog” or “I see cat” vs. The fat cat sat on a mat)
52Implicit Code Instruction Approaches Modified Language Experience ApproachThis approach is used for students who have difficulty readingIt can be used individually or in groupsThe teacher uses a story the students writes, about events, persons, or things of their choice; Language experience storyThe students should have experience with the topic they chooseThis approach is to be used over several daysThis approach provides a method for teaching children initial skills in reading by utilizing the students memory, oral language, and background experiences (recognition of sight words)
53Implicit Code Instruction continued Fernald Method (VAKT)This technique has 4 stages through which students progress as they learn to identify unknown words more effectively.Stage one students choose words they do not know and trace these word until they are able to write each word from memoryStage two: Student does not need to trace the word to learn it. The teacher writes the word. Then the student says the word as they write it, and writes the word without looking at the wordStage three: Student is able to learn word directly from the printed word.Stage four: Student is able to recognize new words from their similarity to words the student has already learned.This approach works, but it is very time consuming. Only use if other attempts have failed.
54Techniques for Building Sight Words Sigh word association ProcedureThis technique uses corrective feedback, drill, and practice to assist students in associating spoken words to written form.This technique is useful for students who are learning to identify words across various context or texts, or students who need more help identify new words then their current reading group offers.When using this strategy remember three important cautions, Stress reading text and other decoding strategies, make sure students understand the meaning of the words, and give students ample chances to read these words in context.
55Techniques for Building Sight Word (continued) Picture Association TechniqueThis technique uses key pictures to help students associate a spoken word with its written form.This technique allows students to form a visual image of the word to facilitate their identification of words.This should be used as a supplemental technique, and the students should be given opportunities to read the word in text.
56Techniques for Building Sight Words (continued) Sentence-Word Association TechniqueThis technique allows students to associate unknown words with familiar spoken words, phrase, or sentence.
57Other Helpful Techniques to learn unknown words Vowel MatchProvides students with practice in decoding words that have various vowel sounds.Sight Word BingoThis techniques help students to practice recognizing wordsCompound ConcentrationGives students practice in identifying compound words, and helps them to understand how to form compound words.Go Fish for RimesGives students practice in reading and identifying words with rimes.