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HOC s LOC s H igher O rder C oncerns v. L ower O rder C oncerns A Useful Guide to Understanding Your Paper By: Donna Cook Kelly Everage Shannon Williamson.

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Presentation on theme: "HOC s LOC s H igher O rder C oncerns v. L ower O rder C oncerns A Useful Guide to Understanding Your Paper By: Donna Cook Kelly Everage Shannon Williamson."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOC s LOC s H igher O rder C oncerns v. L ower O rder C oncerns A Useful Guide to Understanding Your Paper By: Donna Cook Kelly Everage Shannon Williamson Shanikia Young

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3 Writing a paper is like… Writing your paper is similar to building your dream house. With both, you might have a tendency to get consumed with the details. For both processes, you must have a solid structure (HOCs) before you can worry about the small details (LOCs).

4 Higher Order Concerns HOCs HOCs 1.Content 2.Thesis 3.Evidence 4.Organization 5.Purpose solidstructuresAre the solid structures of your house FormForm the basic structure of your paper primaryShould be the primary concerns when writing your paper revisionUsually are dealt with during the revision stage of the writing process. Home

5 Lower Order Concerns LOCs LOCs 1.Word Choice 2.Spelling 3.Punctuation 4.Documentation 5.Grammar small details decorationsAre the small details (decorations) of your house EnhanceEnhance the basic structure of your paper secondaryShould be the secondary concerns when writing your paper editingUsually are dealt with during the editing stage of the writing process Home

6 Interaction Instruction This is an interactive presentation designed to help and guide you when writing your paper. Heres how it works: –If you want to know about CONTENT, you would click on the content link on the House. –Once you have read the slide, you can return to the House by clicking on the Home link. –Once on the House slide, you can then repeat this process to view the other links.

7 Conclusion CSU Writing Center

8 Content: All the parts of your paper that make up the whole HOCs 1.Content 2.Thesis 3.Evidence 4.Organization 5.Purpose The introduction comes first and includes your thesis. The body contains your detailed, supporting evidence. Be specificdont make generalizations a habit. The conclusion brings closure to your essay and refers to your thesis. Home

9 Thesis: The main idea stated in your paper HOCs 1.Content 2.Thesis 3.Evidence 4.Organization 5.Purpose Tells your reader what your paper is about Grabs your readers attention Uses concrete and specific language Avoids clichés like the plague! Sometimes can be found in the conclusion of rough drafts (so be sure to move it to the introduction!) Home

10 Evidence: What makes your idea or argument valid HOCs 1.Content 2.Thesis 3.Evidence 4.Organization 5.Purpose Comes from examples, logical reasoning, and research Convinces your readers Backs up your thesis May challenge your thesis (counterargument) Come from reliable sources Home

11 Organization: The orderly arrangement of your papers components HOCs 1.Content 2.Theses 3.Evidence 4.Organization 5.Purpose No one size fits all formula Arrangement of evidence in a logical format Are there transition words and phrases between ideas? Can you outline the rough draft and find a shape to it? Home

12 Purpose: What the paper is meant to do HOCs 1.Content 2.Thesis 3.Evidence 4.Organization 5.Purpose Who is your audience? How are you trying to communicate to them? Do you wish to persuade, inform, entertain, etc. them? Is the purpose clear in your thesis? Does your evidence fit your purpose? Home

13 Word Choice: The way you choose words to fit the context of an idea LOCs 1.Word Choice 2.Spelling 3.Punctuation 4.Documentation 5.Grammar Choose words your audience will understand Choose words that fit your subject and purpose Use a reliable thesaurus in conjunction with a dictionary Eliminate words that do not contribute to your meaning Dont use big words just to impress Avoid slang and colloquialisms Home

14 Spelling: Frequent spelling errors distract your reader LOCs 1.Word Choice 2.Spelling 3.Punctuation 4.Documentation 5.Grammar Don't rely solely on automated spell checkers Read your paper slowly or even backwards to catch errors Keep a good dictionary handy or go to dictionary.com Memorize the spelling of words that give you trouble Home

15 Punctuation: Use it correctly to make your meaning clear LOCs 1.Word Choice 2.Spelling 3.Punctuation 4.Documentation 5.Grammar Helps the reader grasp your meaning Follows a system of rules, as stated in grammar guides, not the natural pauses you make when you read Home

16 Documentation: The formal way to cite information in a paper LOCs 1.Word Choice 2.Spelling 3.Punctuation 4.Documentation 5.Grammar Place quote marks around any words you copy from a source. Always cite the source when you use someone else's ideas and/or words. When in doubt, cite! Plagiarism is serious business. Learn to use style handbooks - tutors can help. Verify the style required for your assignment. Home

17 Grammar: The way words are put together in sentences LOCs 1.Word Choice 2.Spelling 3.Punctuation 4.Documentation 5.Grammar No one knows all the rules - consult a good guide. When in doubt, ask a tutor or teacher for help. Read your paper as if you're "talking" it. If a sentence sounds "funny," check your grammar. Home

18 DONT FORGET… The CSU Writing Center is open to ANY CSU student. Check their website or stop by the Writing Center (located at 116 Woodall Hall) to find out the Hours of Operation for each semester. Make an appointment ahead of time by calling (706) or the Writing Center at Online Consultation is available per your request. Home

19 Conclusion A well-constructed paper, like a solidly built house, will stand on its own. Focus on higher order concerns first and lower order concerns later. Check CSU's Writing Center for helpful tips on areas that you find troublesome. Use the Resources for Writers link on the CSU Writing Centers website. Don't forget - the experienced consultants in CSU's Writing Center are available to help you with both HOCs and LOCs! Home


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