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Baela Raza Jamil Zara Khan Zaheer Abbas PRESENTED AT: Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) – 10 th to 16 th March 2014 Effects of Parental.

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Presentation on theme: "Baela Raza Jamil Zara Khan Zaheer Abbas PRESENTED AT: Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) – 10 th to 16 th March 2014 Effects of Parental."— Presentation transcript:

1 Baela Raza Jamil Zara Khan Zaheer Abbas PRESENTED AT: Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) – 10 th to 16 th March 2014 Effects of Parental Education and Involvement on Student Achievement: Evidence from Pakistan Participation at CIES Supported by: Open Society Foundation (OSF)

2 Presentation Outline Introduction Objectives of the Paper Past Studies on the Topic Context of the Study Tools used for Analysis The Econometric Model Results and Findings Discussions Policy Recommendations Future Directions and Research

3 Introduction- Learning Crisis in Pakistan Only 43% of Grade 5 students can do Grade 2 level two digit division or read Grade 2 level sentences in English. (ASER Pakistan 2013) Deteriorating trends from 2012 to 2013

4 Reasons for Poor Learning Levels Student Background and Home Environment? Lack of preparation/ careless attitude of teachers Challenges of textbooks Content relevance and school facilities Lack of political will

5 Objectives of the Paper To study the effect of parental education on the Arithmetic learning capabilities of children. To study the associations of parental involvement, the incidence of domestic work, the taking of private tuition and the home environment with the learning capabilities of children. To find out the linkages between maternal education and a favorable home environment on learning capabilities of children

6 Past Literature Parental educational level-the most important determinant of the educational attainment of children. (Stevenson and Baker, 1987) Greater the parental education, greater the parental involvement, better the home environment (Davis- Kean, 2005) Increased maternal education, increased achievement and readiness to attend school (Behrman & Rosenweig,2002)

7 Context of the Study (School-TELLS) Phase I Conducted in in India (World Bank) States: Bihar and Uttar Pradesh Districts: 10 Number of Schools: 160 Phase II Conducted in 2011 in Pakistan (World Bank) Districts: Faisalabad, Mianwali and Rahim Yar Khan Number of Schools: 120 Phase III Conducted in 2013 in Pakistan (ITA) Districts: Faisalabad, Mianwali and Rahim Yar Khan Number of Schools: 106

8 Size of the Study 106 Schools (33 Girls Only, 44 Boys Only, 29 Mixed) 521 Primary teachers surveyed and assessed 1652 Students From Grades 3 and 5 surveyed and assessed

9 Tools Used in the Study Survey Tools School Questionnaire Classroom Observation Questionnaire Teacher’s Questionnaire Student’s Questionnaire Assessment Tools Teacher’s Test Student’s Test RAVENS Progressive Matrices Test

10 Tools used for Analysis School Questionnaire Gathered Information on the Background and Home Environment Student Test Tested students on Arithmetic competencies up to 5 th grade. Final test scores scored out of a total of 100 marks RAVENS RAVENS Progressive Matrices Test Administered to serve as a proxy for the child’s ability

11 Median Learning scores For Grade 3 : Math score= 47 out of 100 RAVENS Test Score= 8 out of 20 For Grade 5: Math score= 56 out of 100 RAVENS Test Score= 10 out of 20

12 The Econometric Model Math_score= β 0 + β 1 Parent_Educ + β X+ ε where Math_score= Total score of the child on the Student Test Parent_Educ= Highest Educational Level in the Household X= Control and Explanatory Variables H 0 : Parental Education does not have an impact on the Arithmetic test scores of children

13 Variables used in the Regression Age Gender Ravens Score (IQ) Control Variables Parental Involvement Children’s Aspiration Socio Economic Conditions Private Tuition Language Used at home Incidence of Domestic Work Explanatory Variables

14 Associations between Explanatory Variables

15 Results and Findings For Grade 5 Parental Education Children of educated parents score 3 points more, on average. Null Hypothesis rejected Highly Significant

16 Results and Findings For Grade 5 Socioeconomic Conditions Domestic Work Private Tuitions A slight positive effect Not very significant points on average Significant points on average Significant

17 Results and Findings Grade 3 Parental Involvement Children whose parents ask about their school related activities at least twice a week score 4.8 points higher, on average Highly Significant

18 Discussions Paternal education is significant for the children in Grade 5 Parental Involvement is significant for the children in Grade 3 Socioeconomic conditions have significant impact on the learning outcomes of the children in Grade 5 Impact of domestic work on the learning levels is significant and higher in Grade 5 as compared to Grade 3.

19 Policy Recommendations Improving Parental Education Non-Formal Learning Options Incentives Strings Attached Social Safety Net /Voucher Programs Improving Parental Involvement Special Awareness and Orientation Programs Awareness about a better learning Environment

20 Future Directions and Research Maternal Variables Home Environment Parental Involvement In 2014 these schools will be revisited and some intervention is being explored with the School Education Dept, Punjab and private schools in the study

21 Thank You!


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