Presentation on theme: "Aims of the Course a. Vocabulary b. Paraphrase c. Structure d. Style e. Rhetoric."— Presentation transcript:
Aims of the Course a. Vocabulary b. Paraphrase c. Structure d. Style e. Rhetoric
Objectives of Teaching 1. To comprehend the whole text 2. To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions 3. To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences 4. To understand the structure of the text 5. To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage.
Important and difficult points: 1. The comprehension and appreciation of the new words and expressions. 2. The appreciation of the words and expressions used for stress. 3. Some useful expressions such as to dissuade sb. from doing, in spite of…, and etc.
Background Information Sir Francis Chichester (17September 1901 – 26 August 1972), aviator and sailor, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for becoming the first person to sail single-handed around the world by the clipper route, and the fastest circumnavigator, in nine months and one day overall.Queen Elizabeth IIsingle-handedclipper route circumnavigator
Background Information World Map
Global Analysis His adventures Time 1931 Aug Dec Won the 1st solo transatlantic sailing race Began the greatest voyage Tried to fly round the world Deeds 28 May 29 Jan Arrived back in England Set off from Australia Arrived in Australia
2. Global analysis Part division Main IdeasParasParts His decision to sail round the world alone The accomplishment of his great voyage The significance of his great voyage
. Global analysis His adventures Time 1931 Aug Dec Won the 1st solo transatlantic sailing race Began the greatest voyage Tried to fly round the world Deeds 28 May 29 Jan Arrived back in England Set off from Australia Arrived in Australia
Detailed Study of the Text 1. single-handed : done by one person without help from others(used either as an adverb or as an adjective), e.g. -He runs the restaurant single-handed. -My father translated this novel into English by his single-handed efforts.
Detailed 2. At sixty-five Francis Chichester set out to sail single-handed round the world. 1 set out: to begin a course of action, start, e.g. -There being no bus, they had to set out on foot. -set out on a journey round the world ( 动身 周游世界 )
3.Before he sailed round the world single-handed, Francis Chichester had already surprised his friends several times: Before he traveled round the earth alone by ship, Francis Chichester had already made his friends surprised for a couple of times. Detailed Study of the Text
4. He had tried to fly round the world but failed. ① fail: (vi.) be unsuccessful, become weak or exhausted, e.g. -She failed in everything she tried. -He has been failing in health/eyesight/hearing in the past few years. ② fail: (vt.) unable to do sth; disappoint; do not pass an exam, e.g. -Li Haoyu failed to pass CET Band 4. -Words failed me. Detailed Study of the Text
5. He gave up flying. ① give up: i. stop having or doing; abandon hope for sth. Or the attempt to do sth., e.g. -We should not give up halfway. -His pulse was so weak that the doctor gave him up for dead. ii. surrender, part with, e.g. -Give up your arms and live. -Finally the criminal gave himself up to the police station. Detailed Study of the Text
6. But Chichester was determined to carry out his plan: However he made up his mind to sail round the world alone. ① determined: with one's mind firmly made up, e.g. -The government is determined to further the reform. ② carry out: fulfill or perform (one's promise, plan, etc.), e.g. -We all have certain duties and obligations to carry out. -It has been known to all that these attacks were carried out by the terrorists led by Ben Laden.
7. In August, 1966, at the age of nearly sixty-five, an age when many men retire, he began the greatest voyage of his life. ① retire i. give up one's job because of old age, stop working at one's job, profession, -In China, workers usually retire at 60, but his father retired at the age of 65. ii. (fml) go to bed, e.g. -The writer usually retires at midnight. -There being 6 periods tomorrow, let's retire early tonight. iii. go away; withdraw, e.g. -Being severely criticized by his manager, he retired to his own office slowly and quietly. -Each side retired 10 miles from the frontier. Detailed Study of the Text
iv. retire into oneself: become silent because one is thinking ( 沉思不语 ) ② voyage: (n.) sea journey; (v.) go on a sea journey, e.g. -This letter was written on Hemingway's voyage from the US to Paris. -The seaman has almost voyaged around the world. Note: The word "journey" usually refers to going to a distant place on the land. "Travel" is a general word, which means going to a distant place, by air, sea or car. The word "trip" usually refers to a pleasure excursion, as in "a honeymoon trip", "a weekend trip to the New Summer Palace in Zhuhai". Detailed Study of the Text
8. Chichester followed the route of the great nineteenth century clipper ships: Chichester sailed along the route by which the great clipper ships in the nineteenth century sailed.
Detailed Study of the Text Note: Clipper ships were fast sailing vessels used in the China tea trade in the nineteenth century. The great age of the clipper ship was from 1845 to Speed was demanded in the China tea trade and also for the fast delivery of cargoes to San Francisco and Melbourne during the California and Australian gold rushes. Clippers fell out of use as freight rates declined and steam ships provided competition.
Detailed Study of the Text Some record clipper passages: -Liverpool to New York, 15 days -Hongkong to New York, 74 days. -New York to San Francisco, 89 days.
9. But the clippers had had plenty of crew. Chichester did it all by himself. ① plenty of: (followed by either a countable or an uncountable noun) a large quantity or number of, e.g. -We've got plenty of time to get there. -There are plenty of empty bottles/fresh fruits in the house. Detailed Study of the Text
② (all) by oneself: completely alone; without any help, e.g. -According to the test requirement, everyone must do/finish the paper all by himself or herself. Detailed Study of the Text
10. Chichester covered 14,100 miles before stopping in Sydney, Australia: Before stopping in Sydney, Australia for a rest, he had already traveled 14,100 miles. ① cover: vt. i. travel (a certain distance), e.g. -By sunset we had covered 45 miles/2 provinces by car. ii. include; comprise -His researches cover a wide field. Detailed Study of the Text
11.He must not go any further. Note: Quite a few students are confused about the difference between "mustn't" and "needn't/don't have to". In fact, "mustn't" expresses an obligation not to do something (or tells people not to do sth.) while "needn't/don't have to" is used to say there is no obligation.
Compare the following examples: -You mustn't move any of the books on the shelf. (The speaker tells you not to move the books.) -You needn't/don't have to come tomorrow if you don't want to. (There is no obligation for you to come.) Detailed Study of the Text
12. He did not listen: He did not pay any attention to/He was not influenced by what others said. Detailed Study of the Text
13. After resting in Sydney for a few weeks, Chichester set off once more in spite of his friends' attempt to dissuade him. ① rest on -Her hand rested lightly on his shoulder. ii. depend on -His decision to sail west rested on the belief that the world is round. Detailed Study of the Text
② set off: begin a journey, start, e.g. -They set off for Shantou at dawn. Note: Set off may also mean “start (sth. Such as an action) happening 引起, 引发 -Careless handling of international relations can set off a war.
14. ③ in spite of/despite: regardless of; not caring about -They went out in spite of the storm. ④ dissuade from: persuade (somebody) against (something or doing something), prevent sb. from doing sth. By giving reasons, e.g. -Peter's father tried to dissuade him from marrying Mary. -We failed to dissuade him from leaving school. Detailed Study of the Text
15. The second half of his voyage was by far the more dangerous part, during which he sailed round the treacherous Cape Horn: The second half of his voyage was much more dangerous than the first, during the second half of his voyage he traveled round the dangerous Cape Horn. Detailed Study of the Text
① by far: by a large amount or degree (usually used to modify a superlative or comparative degree adjective or adverb), e.g. -Girls' pronunciation is by far clearer than boys' -By far the shortest way to get there is to cross this river. -This is by far the better of the two. Detailed Study of the Text
② Cape Horn: a steep headland at the south of Horn Island, Chile, generally considered the southernmost point of South America. All the water between South America and the Antarctic Ocean is squeezed through this narrow, shallow gap. Sometimes, the waves there may be as high as 50 feet. Detailed Study of the Text
16. sea became so rough that the boat almost turned over. ① so … that …: to/in such a degree that …, e.g. -He walked so fast that we couldn't catch up with him. Detailed Study of the Text
② turn over i. (cause to) fall over or upset, reverse in position by bringing the bottom to the top or vice versa, e.g. -Having drunk a lot, he turned over in bed from time to time, unable to fall asleep. -The soil must be thoroughly turned over before planting. Detailed Study of the Text
ii. turn a page, turn to a new page -The boy was not really reading, just turning over the pages. iii. think about, consider sth. -I turned the idea over for a couple of weeks before replying. -He has turned the matter over in his mind. Detailed Study of the Text
17. Fortunately, the damage to the boat was not too serious. ① fortunately: luckily ② damage: (n.) harm, loss; (vt.) cause harm to, e.g. -We must find ways to repair the damage -Hurricane Cammile did great damage to the crops. -Hurricane Cammile damaged thousands of homes. Detailed Study of the Text
18. Still, he could not help thinking … Can not help (doing): can not keep oneself from
Detailed Study of the Text After succeeding in sailing round Cape Horn, … ① succeed in (doing) sth: be successful in (doing) sth., e.g. -He succeeded in whatever he undertook. -Only after they had performed hundreds of experiments did they succeed in solving the problem.
Detailed Study of the Text 19.I feel as if I had wakened from a nightmare. Wild horses could not drag me down to Cape Horn and that sinister Southern Ocean again. ① I feel as if I had wakened from a nightmare.
Note: Pay attention to the fact that in the subordinate clause directed by "as if", the subjunctive mood is being used. Besides, Chichester is comparing his adventure of sailing round Cape Horn and the Southern Ocean to a nightmare, and the Southern Ocean to a sinister. Detailed Study of the Text
"Wild horses could not drag me" is a common metaphor used to mean that nothing, no matter how strong, could make you do something, e.g. -Wild horses could not drag the secret from my lips. -Wild horses could not have dragged me away from the exciting film. (Nothing could have made me leave.) Detailed Study of the Text
Knight knighthood knighthood ceremony Detailed Study of the Text
Knights were the highest class of fighting men in Europe during the Middle Ages. There were other classes of fighting men, such as the lowly foot soldiers. But the knights, who fought on horseback, were the aristocrats of the battlefield. The great heroes of the time, both in history and in fact, were knights. By the year 1500 the time of the knight as fighting man was over. Hired foot soldiers replaced the mounted knight Detailed Study of the Text
knighthood did not die out altogether. Today in Great Britain, knighthood is an honorary award given to outstanding people in recognition of some remarkable work they have done. A man with the rank of knight is called "Sir" (prefixed to his whole name or given name, but not to his surname alone), and his wife, "Lady". A woman with the same rank is called "Dame".
Knighthood ceremony: The King or Queen takes the sword of the person being honored or borrows one from someone present at the ceremony. The person about to be knighted kneels at one knee and bows his head respectfully in front of the King or Queen. The King or Queen touches with the sword first the left shoulder of the person bowing before him or her then the right shoulder and finally the top of the bowed head. While doing this the King or queen says, "We dub thee Sir Detailed Study of the Text
very: adj. (used for emphasis, used for giving force to an expression) same; identical, e.g. -Those were his very words. ( 那些是他的原话.) -It is his very cleverness that makes it difficult for her to work with other colleagues. -This is the very pen he used when Earnest Hemmingway wrote his masterpiece "the Old man and Sea".
Detailed Study of the Text Sir Francis Drake( ) English naval explorer, once the vice-admiral( 海军上将 ) of the British Navy. After several slave-trading expeditions to West Africa and the Spanish Main ( ), he sailed round the globe in the Golden Hind ( ). He managed to tie down the Spanish Armada by raiding Cadiz (1587), and helped defeat the Spanish attempt to invade England(1588). To historians, he is a controversial figure. The British regard him as a national hero while many in other countries think of him as pirate( 海盗 ).
Detailed Study of the Text
20.the first time Note: it is/will be the (one's) first/second … time that; it was the (one's) first/second … time that; it is high/about time that
21. Like many other adventurers, Chichester had experienced fear and conquered it. ① experience: undergo, go through ② conquer: defeat; overcome, e.g. -More and more people have come to realize that we must not conquer nature, but we should make good use of it, instead. Detailed Study of the Text
22.In doing so, he had undoubtedly learn something about himself: In experiencing fear and conquering it, had undoubtedly learned a great deal about his own strengths and weaknesses when faced with anticipated and unanticipated hardships.
23. undoubtedly: certainly, e.g. -Undoubtedly, many families benefit a lot from the newly-adopted housing reform policy. Detailed Study of the Text
Note: beyond doubt, undoubtedly, doubtless, no doubt, beyond doubt, without doubt 与 undoubtedly 都表示非常肯定的语气, 即 " 无疑地 ". Doubtless 语气最弱, 可以译作 " 很可能 ". 如 : You are doubtless right. 你很可能是对的. No doubt 的语气也较弱, 可当作 " 相必 " 讲, 如 :No doubt you can think of other ways
Summary of the Text Sir Francis Chichester was a British adventurer. In 1931, he tried to fly round the world but failed. Years later he decided to sail round the world alone. His friends and doctors thought he couldn't do it, because he had lung cancer. In 1966, at the age of nearly 65, he began to sail round the world by following the route of the nineteenth century clipper ships.
He arrived in Australia on Dec. 12, The Australians and his family, who had flown there, welcomed him. Everyone said he had done enough and he mustn't go any further. But he didn't listen. Two nights after he left Australia to resume his voyage, the sea became so rough and the boat almost turned over, but the damage to the boat wasn't serious. He returned to England on May 28, He had covered 28,000 miles in 9 months by sailing round the world alone in a small boat. Summary of the Text
Retired pay 退休金； 养老金 Air crew 机组人员 Dissuade from 劝阻某人 Bicycle cape 自行车雨披 Adventure playground 儿童游乐场 Put sb to the sword 处死 Knight of the pen 文人；记者；抄写员 Useful Expressions
4. Picture talk ① ⑤④ ③②
5. Inspiring quotations 1. Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者，事竟成。 3. Perseverance is vital to success. 毅力为成功所必需。 2. No cross, no crown. 成功来之不易。 4. Success doesn’t come easy. 不吃苦中苦，难为人上人。
1. After succeeding in landing on George Island, the captain sent a radio message to the headquarter. 2. He is determined to continue his experiment but this time he’ll do it another way. 3. Fortunately there was a hospital nearby and we took him there at once. Translation Practice
5. We didn’t think he could cover the distance in a quarter of an hour, but he succeeded in doing it. 6. Even after his doctor told him he had lung cancer, Chichester would not give up his old dream of sailing round the world. 7. I was busy making a new device for catching rats when Mark came and dragged me out to a flower show. Translation Practice
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