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Unit 8: Text A Foreword 21st Century College English: Book 1.

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2 Unit 8: Text A Foreword 21st Century College English: Book 1

3 Unit 5: Text A Lead-in Activities Lead-in ActivitiesLead-in ActivitiesLead-in Activities Text Organization Text OrganizationText OrganizationText Organization Reading & Writing Skills Reading & Writing SkillsReading & Writing SkillsReading & Writing Skills Language Points Language PointsLanguage PointsLanguage Points Guided Practice Guided PracticeGuided PracticeGuided Practice Assignment AssignmentAssignment

4 1. What do you know about Bill Gates and his company Microsoft? 2. How does information highway influence us? 3. What kind of technological innovations might we see in the next 20 years? Lead-in Activities Questions for Discussion

5 Text Organization The Structure of Text A The upcoming communications revolution. The purpose for which Bill Gates wrote the book. book. Para. 2-7 Para Para Bill Gates and his friend believed, the first truly personal computer brought the world great changes. Para. 1

6 Reading & Writing Skills Metaphor is a way of thinking of one thing in terms of another thing makes a COMPARISION between two unlike elements. This comparison is IMPLIED rather than STATED Metaphor is a way of thinking of one thing in terms of another thing makes a COMPARISION between two unlike elements. This comparison is IMPLIED rather than STATED 1. Make a list of all the words and phrases you can find with which Gates refers to computer technology as if it were a road, journey, or adventure. 2. Do you think this comparison of computer technologies to a journey is an effective one? If so, explain how the image of travel fits well with the new technologies. If not, what would be a better comparison?

7 Intensive Study Text-related InformationText-related InformationText-related InformationText-related Information Intensive StudyIntensive StudyIntensive StudyIntensive Study  Difficult sentences  Key words, phrases & usages  Comprehension exercises

8 Text-related Information Bill (William) Gates Bill (William) Gates, born in 1955, is an American computer entrepreneur who in 1975 co-founded Micro-Soft (later Microsoft) with Paul Allen, a private company for the manufacture and sale of computers. By the end of the 1980s Microsoft was a leading multi- national computer company and had made Gates, its chairman and chief executive, the youngest multi-billionaire in the world.

9 Authored by Bill Gates, The Road Ahead was first published by the Penguin Group (New York) in In the book, Bill Gates looks ahead to show how the emerging technologies of the digital age will transform all our lives and gives us his vision of the undiscovered territory on the information highway. The Road Ahead 《未来之路》 Text-related Information

10 Foreword by Bill Gates 1 The past twenty years have been an incredible adventure for me. It started on a day when, as a college sophomore, I stood in Harvard Square with my friend Paul Allen and pored over the description of a kit computer in Popular Electronics magazine. As we read excitedly about the first truly personal computer, Paul and I didn’t know exactly how it would be used, but we were sure it would change us and the world of computing. We were right. The personal-computer revolution happened and it has affected millions of lives. It has led us to places we had barely imagined. 1 The past twenty years have been an incredible adventure for me. It started on a day when, as a college sophomore, I stood in Harvard Square with my friend Paul Allen and pored over the description of a kit computer in Popular Electronics magazine. As we read excitedly about the first truly personal computer, Paul and I didn’t know exactly how it would be used, but we were sure it would change us and the world of computing. We were right. The personal-computer revolution happened and it has affected millions of lives. It has led us to places we had barely imagined. incrediblepored overincrediblepored over Language Points

11 2 We are all beginning another great journey. We aren’t sure where this one will lead us either, but again I am certain this revolution will touch even more lives and take us all farther. The major changes coming will be in the way people communicate with each other. The benefits and problems arising from this upcoming communications revolution will be much greater than those brought about by the PC revolution. arising from brought aboutarising from brought about Language Points

12 3 There is never a reliable map for unexplored territory, but we can learn important lessons from the creation and evolution of the $120-billion personal-computer industry. The PC — its evolving hardware, business applications, on-line systems, Internet connections, electronic mail, multimedia titles, authoring tools, and games — is the foundation for the next revolution. reliable 4 During the PC industry’s infancy, the mass media paid little attention to what was going on in the brand-new business. Those of us who were attracted by computers and the possibilities they promised were unnoticed outside our own circles. was going on promisedwas going on promised Language Points

13 5 But this next journey, to the so-called information highway, is the topic of endless newspaper and magazine articles, television and radio broadcasts, conferences, and widespread speculation. There has been an unbelievable amount of interest in this subject during the last few years, both inside and outside the computer industry. The interest is not confined only to developed countries, and it goes well beyond the large numbers of personal-computer users. is not confined only togoes well beyondis not confined only togoes well beyond Language Points

14 6 Thousands of informed and uninformed people are now speculating publicly about the information highway. The amount of misunderstanding about the technology and its possible pitfalls surprises me. Some people think the highway is simply today’s Internet or the delivery of 500 simultaneous channels of television. Others hope or fear it will create computers as smart as human beings. Those developments will come, but they are not the highway. Language Points

15 7 The revolution in communications is just beginning. It will take place over several decades, and will be driven by new “applications” — new tools, often meeting currently unforeseen needs. During the next few years, major decisions will have to be made. It is crucial that a broad set of people — not just technologists or those who happen to be in the computer industry — participate in the debate about how this technology should be shaped. If that can be done, the highway will serve the purposes users want. Then it will gain broad acceptance and become a reality. meetingIt is crucial thatmeetingIt is crucial that Language Points

16 8 I’m writing this book The Road Ahead as part of my contribution to the debate and, although it’s a tall order, I hope it can serve as a travel guide for the forthcoming journey. I do this with some misgivings. We’ve all smiled at predictions from the past that look silly today. History is full of now ironic examples — the Oxford professor who in 1878 dismissed the electric light as a gimmick; the commissioner of U.S. patents who in 1899 asked that his office be abolished because “everything that can be invented has been invented.” This is meant to be a serious book, although ten years from now it may now it may not appear that way. What I’ve said that turned out to be right will be considered obvious and what was wrong will be humorous. a tall orderserve as turned outa tall orderserve as turned out Language Points

17 9 Anyone expecting an autobiography or a treatise on what it’s like to have been as lucky as I have been will be disappointed. Perhaps when I’ve retired I will get around to writing that book. This book looks primarily to the future. get aroundget around 10 Anyone hoping for a technological treatise will be disappointed, too. Everyone will be touched by the information highway, and everyone ought to be able to understand its implications. That’s why my goal from the very beginning was to write a book that as many people as possible could understand. Language Points

18 11 The process of thinking about and writing the present book took longer than I expected. Indeed, estimating the time it would take proved to be as difficult as projecting the development schedule of a major software project. The only part that was the cover photo which we finished well ahead of schedule. I enjoy writing speeches and had thought writing a book would be like writing them. I innocently imagined writing a chapter would be the equivalent of writing a speech. The fallacy in my thinking was similar to the one software developers often run into — a program ten times as long is about one hundred times more complicated to write. I should have known better. estimatingrun intoestimatingrun into Language Points

19 12 And here it is. I hope it stimulates understanding, debate, and creative ideas about how we can take advantage of all that’s sure to be happening in the decade ahead. take advantage oftake advantage of Language Points

20 incredible adj. — — unbelievable; extraordinary e.g. Michael Jordan is an incredible basketball player.Michael Jordan is an incredible basketball player. Bill Gates earns an incredible amount of money; he is the youngest multi-billionaire in American history.Bill Gates earns an incredible amount of money; he is the youngest multi-billionaire in American history.

21 pore over — — examine, study with close attention, read attentively e.g. To prepare his term paper, the student spent many hours in the library poring over old documents.To prepare his term paper, the student spent many hours in the library poring over old documents. I have a poor sense of direction, and have to pore over my map time and again once in a new place.I have a poor sense of direction, and have to pore over my map time and again once in a new place.Translate:他正专心致志地阅读一份主要的报纸。 Key He’s poring over a major newspaper.

22 arise from — result from Translate: The misunderstanding arose from the lack of communication among family members. Key家庭成员间的误会是因缺少交流而起。 e.g. The problem arose from the recent changes in the law.The problem arose from the recent changes in the law. His illness arose from malnutrition ( 营养不良 ).His illness arose from malnutrition ( 营养不良 ).

23 bring about — cause to happen e.g. The increase in business activity was brought about by the fall in oil prices.The increase in business activity was brought about by the fall in oil prices. The computer has brought about many changes in our lives.The computer has brought about many changes in our lives. Practice Make a sentence with “bring about”.

24 reliable adj. — that can be relied on e.g. She may forget to come – she is not very reliable.She may forget to come – she is not very reliable. This map of Shanghai was published two years ago; it is not reliable anymoreThis map of Shanghai was published two years ago; it is not reliable anymore

25 go on — take place or happen e.g. There is a children’s party going on next door.There is a children’s party going on next door. What’s going on here?What’s going on here?Translate: The central government is determined to fight against The central government is determined to fight against the corruption going on at different levels. the corruption going on at different levels. Key中央政府决定与不同层次上的腐败作斗争。

26 promise — 1) give assurance 2) show sign, give cause for expecting e.g. (of definition 2) She promises to be a fine writer.She promises to be a fine writer. Early mist promises a fine day.Early mist promises a fine day.Translate:瑞雪兆丰年。 Key Snow in winter promises a bountiful harvest. e.g. (of definition 1) I promised to return the book in good condition.I promised to return the book in good condition. He promised his teacher never to show up late again.He promised his teacher never to show up late again.

27 confine to — restrict or keep within certain limits e.g. She was confined to bed with a cold.She was confined to bed with a cold. It was very difficult to confine the disease to the farm where it had broken out.It was very difficult to confine the disease to the farm where it had broken out. Please confine your oral presentation to 5 minutes.Please confine your oral presentation to 5 minutes.

28 go beyond — exceed e.g. The level of inflation has gone beyond 10%.The level of inflation has gone beyond 10%. This year’s sales income go beyond our expectations.This year’s sales income go beyond our expectations. My interest in computers goes beyondjust playing computer games.My interest in computers goes beyondjust playing computer games. Practice Make a sentence with “go beyond”.

29 meet v. — satisfy e.g. Does the result of the experiment meet your expectations?Does the result of the experiment meet your expectations? The book is so popular that it has had to go to a second print to meet the demand.The book is so popular that it has had to go to a second print to meet the demand.

30 何谓虚拟语气? 在英语里,凡表达与事实不符的假定、想象、愿望等时,一 定要把动词的惯常使用法加以改变,这种特殊的动词使用法, 叫做 “ 虚拟语气 ” 。 请比较下列句子: 1. I have a car. ( 我有一部车。 指现在有 ) 2. I had a car.( 我有一部车。 指过去有 ) 3. I wish I had a car. ( 但愿我有一部车。 ) 在 1 、 2 句中所叙述的是 “ 事实 ” 。但在 3 句中的 “I wish ” 是用于表 示愿望,因此,其后的 “I had a car.” 并非叙述 “ 事实 ” ,此句的涵义 是 “ 我现在没有车,但愿我现在有一部车 ” 。 More to learn More to learn

31 虚拟语气的一些主要形式 insist 原形 V. 主语 + + that 主语 (should) + suggest be+p.p. 常用于此句型的动词如下: 建议 要求 坚持 命令 suggest, move, propose, recommend ask, demand, require, request insist, urge, maintain order, command More to learn More to learn

32 原形 V. It is necessary that you (should) + be +p.p. 类似此种形容词的有: natural (理所当然的), important (重要的), urgent (急迫的), necessary/ essential/ imperative (必要的), proper (当然的) 虚拟语气的一些主要形式 More to learn More to learn

33 X.Complete the following sentences, using the subjunctive mood. Exercises 1.In the Information Age, education requires that powerful computers ____________ in schools. (introduce) 2.As the computer can meet the different needs of learners, it is suggested that new teaching methods involving the computer__________. (try 2.As the computer can meet the different needs of learners, it is suggested that new teaching methods involving the computer__________. (try)  be introduced  be tried Ex. X, p. 220 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. X, p. 220

34 X.Complete the following sentences, using the subjunctive mood. Exercises 3.It is necessary that educational material for students of various abilities _____________ so that they can work at their own speeds. (design and program) 4.Gates says it is important that everyday computer users _____________ to planning the information highway. (contribute)  be designed and programmed  contribute

35 X.Complete the following sentences, using the subjunctive mood. Exercises 5.Computers will never replace teachers in courses such as creative writing because it is necessary that a teacher ____________ there to provide personal attention. (be) 6.It is essential that you __________ your study habits if you expect to do well in college. (change)  be  change

36 a tall order — (infml.) a request or piece of work that is unreasonably difficult to perform e.g. This seems to me a tall order to finish three papers in one week.This seems to me a tall order to finish three papers in one week. It is a bit of a tall order to expect the students to practice oral English in their dormitories.It is a bit of a tall order to expect the students to practice oral English in their dormitories.

37 serve as — be used for a particular purpose, be good enough or suitable for e.g. Our room has to serve as both bedroom and living room.Our room has to serve as both bedroom and living room. This incident serves as a warning to other students who are tempted to cheat in exams.This incident serves as a warning to other students who are tempted to cheat in exams.Translate: This may serve as a warning not to be so careless. This may serve as a warning not to be so careless. Key 这可以作为一个警示, 切勿如此粗心。

38 turn out — prove to be e.g. The newcomer turned out to be one of my old acquaintances.The newcomer turned out to be one of my old acquaintances. The pretty girl turned out to be a thief.The pretty girl turned out to be a thief. Practice Make a sentence with “turn out”.

39 get around — find or take the necessary time or effort for e.g. I finally got around to replying the letter from my parents, dated three weeks ago.I finally got around to replying the letter from my parents, dated three weeks ago. He only got around to reading document a few days ago.He only got around to reading document a few days ago. I never got around to taking the examination.I never got around to taking the examination. More to learn More to learn

40 Translate into Chinese: Perhaps when I’ve retired I will get around to writing that book. Key也许等我退休之后会抽出时间写那本书。

41 estimate — v. — v.calculate roughly the time, cost, size, value, etc. of something n. n. approximate calculation of an amount of quantity e.g. According to some estimates the number of self- employed people ( 个体户 ) has increased by 50%.According to some estimates the number of self- employed people ( 个体户 ) has increased by 50%.e.g. It is still too early to estimate the abilities of the young man.It is still too early to estimate the abilities of the young man. We estimated the cost of the trip to be $5,000.We estimated the cost of the trip to be $5,000.Translate: 我估计会议 20 分钟后就会结束。 我估计会议 20 分钟后就会结束。 Key I estimate that the conference will be over in 20 minutes.

42 run intov. run into v. — meet accidentally, encounter e.g. He ran into trouble with his economic policies.He ran into trouble with his economic policies. I ran into an old friend at the supermarket yesterday.I ran into an old friend at the supermarket yesterday. Translate:这家公司遇到了财政问题。 Key The firm ran into financial problems.

43 take advantage of — make good use of, profit from e.g. She took advantage of his good nature.She took advantage of his good nature. e.g. We took advantage of the dry weather to paint the house.We took advantage of the dry weather to paint the house. The tennis player knows how to take advantage of his opponent’s weaknesses.The tennis player knows how to take advantage of his opponent’s weaknesses. Practice Make a sentence with “take advantage of”.

44 Guided Practice VocabularyVocabularyVocabulary ClozeClozeCloze TranslationTranslationTranslation Structure WritingStructure WritingStructure WritingStructure Writing

45 Ex. V, p. 217 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. V, p. 217 Vocabulary

46 V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate 1.As the Chinese saying goes, a timely snow_____ a good harvest. 1.As the Chinese saying goes, a timely snow_____ a good harvest.  promises Vocabulary

47 2.In the Information Age, we ought to develop a selective mind to determine _____ sources of information. 2.In the Information Age, we ought to develop a selective mind to determine _____ sources of information.  reliable V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

48 3. The big _____ of writing a treatise on communications has made it impossible for the professor to take up other interests.   project V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

49 4. It is freezing cold. My hands have gone numb ( 僵 ) and I 4. It is freezing cold. My hands have gone numb ( 僵 ) and I can _____ feel my toes. can _____ feel my toes.   barely V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

50 5. If tests are to _____, what will be used to let both the student and the teacher know how much he has learned?  be abolished V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

51 6. The theatre is a unique one because it provides _____ translation in both English and Chinese. 6. The theatre is a unique one because it provides _____ translation in both English and Chinese.  simultaneous V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

52 7. Whether the egg comes before the chicken or the other way round will turn out to be a(n) _____ debate with no answer ever to be found.  endless V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

53 8. Although research is important, the university exists and 8. Although research is important, the university exists and operates _____ for the students. operates _____ for the students.  primarily V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

54 9. Some words, such as “caribou” ( 北美驯鹿 ), can only be found in American English. They have no British _____.  equivalents V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

55 11.Her written English was first-class, and she had a(n) _____ vocabulary for a sophomore.  incredible V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

56 12. It is painful to memorize large numbers of words without 12. It is painful to memorize large numbers of words without knowing exactly how to use them. And what’s more, I can’t see what _____ this could serve. knowing exactly how to use them. And what’s more, I can’t see what _____ this could serve.  purpose V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

57 13. Einstein’s theory was too difficult to gain broad _____ in the beginning.  acceptance V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

58 14. Dr. Wilson wrote the book in the hope of _____ discussion of the problem of global warming.  stimulating V.Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. incredibleapplicationbarelypromiseproject abolishsimultaneousreliableendlessequivalent primarilyacceptancepurposestimulate Vocabulary

59 Cloze Ex. XII, p. 221 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. XII, p. 221

60 Over the last 20 years, there have been _____________________ changes in the computer industry. When the personal computer was first introduced, the only people interested_____ it were technologists. But over time, the PC has become an ____________ part of our modern society. Today, reliable computer applications are ___________ to international business. And everyday people use the PC to go on-line and ________________ with millions of other _____________ users around the world. Over the last 20 years, there have been _____________________ changes in the computer industry. When the personal computer was first introduced, the only people interested_____ it were technologists. But over time, the PC has become an ____________ part of our modern society. Today, reliable computer applications are ___________ to international business. And everyday people use the PC to go on-line and ________________ with millions of other _____________ users around the world. incredible/tremendous in essential crucial communicate Internet each of the blanks with an appropriate word. XIII. Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word. Cloze

61 Now a new ____________ is beginning. Once again we are heading into unexplored _____________. We can only speculate__________ all the changes which new technology will _________ about in the coming years. The purpose of The Road Ahead is to ___________sure that common people are able to take part in ___________ about these new technologies. This book is intended to ___________ discussion about what the new technologies should do and how they should operate. Making the right decisions now — or at ________ asking the right questions — is necessary in order to ensure that electronic needs are ______ in the Now a new ____________ is beginning. Once again we are heading into unexplored _____________. We can only speculate__________ all the changes which new technology will _________ about in the coming years. The purpose of The Road Ahead is to ___________sure that common people are able to take part in ___________ about these new technologies. This book is intended to ___________ discussion about what the new technologies should do and how they should operate. Making the right decisions now — or at ________ asking the right questions — is necessary in order to ensure that electronic needs are ______ in thefuture. revolution territory about/on bring make debates stimulate least met each of the blanks with an appropriate word. XIII. Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word. Cloze

62 Translation Ex. XIII, p. 222 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. XIII, p. 222

63 1. 没有一个科学家确切地知道信息高速公路将在未来十年把 我们带往何处。 exactly where the information highway will lead us No scientist in the decade ahead No scientist knows exactly where the information highway will lead us in the decade ahead. Translation

64 2. 至关重要的是,发达国家和发展中国家应通过更多的交流 增进相互间的理解和尊重。 developed countries and developing countries increase understanding and respect It is crucial that through more communication It is crucial that developed countries and developing countries increase mutual understanding and mutual respect through more communication. Translation

65 3. 从一开始,大众传媒就对这部关于个人电脑的专著给予了 特别的关注。 the mass media treatise From the very beginning particular From the very beginning, the mass media paid particular attention to this treatise on the personal computer. Translation

66 4. 我的侄子以为日文跟中文在很多方面相似,很容易学,但 结果并不是那样。 is similar to Chinese in many ways it didn’t turn out that way had thought My nephew had thought that Japanese, which is similar to Chinese in many ways, was easy to learn, but it didn’t turn out that way. Translation

67 5. 你本该知道得更多些。大学教授讲课的方式并不只限于告 诉学生基本事实,他还激发讨论和争论。 The way a college professor teaches is not confined only to should have known better You should have known better. The way a college professor teaches is not confined only to telling his students the basic facts. He or she also stimulates discussions and debates. stimulates Translation

68 6. 原来估计这项工程将费时五年。但由于工人和工程师们的 创造性劳动,工程大大提前完成了。 take the creativity It was originally estimated that It was originally estimated that the project would take 5 years. But because of the creativity of the workers as well as the engineers, it was finished well ahead of schedule. well ahead of schedule Translation

69 7. 构思和写作自传花费了那位美国作家三年多的时间, 其间 他遇到了许多无法想象的困难。 during which ran into The process of thinking about and writing The process of thinking about and writing his autobiography took the American writer more than three years, during which he ran into many unimaginable difficulties. unimaginable Translation

70 8. 医生们不能肯定他患了什么病,这就是他已决定提前退休 的原因。 is suffering from that’s why aren’t sure The doctors aren’t sure what illness he is suffering from. That’s why he has decided to retire ahead of schedule. Translation

71 Structured Writing Ex. XV, p. 223 《读写教程 I 》 : Ex. XV, p. 223

72 → A metaphor ( 暗喻 ) → is is a way of thinking of one thing in terms of another thing. makes a COMPARISION between two unlike elements. This comparison is IMPLIED rather than STATED. e.g. Jim was a fox.Jim was a fox. The world is a stage.The world is a stage. Learn to use metaphors Structured Writing

73 Bill Gates’ metaphor in Text A: new communications technologiestraveling Drill:Make a list of all the words and phrases you can find with which Gates refers to computer technology as if it were a road, journey, or adventure. 1)The past twenty years have been an incredible adventure for me. (Line 1) 2) It has led us to places we had barely imagined. (Line 9) 3) We are all beginning another great journey. (Line 11) 4) We aren’t sure where this one will lead us either. (Line 11) Learn to use metaphors Structured Writing

74 6)There is never a reliable map for unexplored territory. (Line 18) (Line 18) 7)But this next journey, to the so-called information highway.(Line 30) 8)I hope it can serve as a travel guide for the forthcoming journey. (Line 61) journey. (Line 61) 5)... This revolution will... take us all farther. (Line 13) Drill:Make a list of all the words and phrases you can find with which Gates refers to computer technology as if it were a road, journey, or adventure. Learn to use metaphors Structured Writing

75 Practice Write a short passage to elaborate on ( 阐发 ) Gates’ metaphor that “computers are a revolution.” First, think about what ideas you associate with a revolution (for example, “war”, “violence,” “complete change”) and then decide which of these ideas can be compared to computers. You may use a dictionary to get ideas about the different meanings “revolution”can have. (Or, if you do not think that “revolution” is a good metaphor for computers, you may compare computers to something else you have thought of.) Learn to use metaphors Structured Writing

76 Assignment 1. Ex. V, p. 217; 2. Ex. VI, p. 218; 3. Ex. VIII, p. 219; 4. Ex. XII, p. 221; 5.Ex. XIII, p. 222.


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