The work reported herein was supported under the National Dissemination for Career and Technical Education, PR/Award (No. VO51A990004) and /or under the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education, PR/Award (No. VO51A990006) as administered by the Office of Vocational and Adult Education, U. S. Department of Education. However, the contents do not necessarily represent the positions or policies of the Office of Vocational and Adult Education or the U. S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. Disclaimer:
What does it take to obtain good jobs (Myth or Reality)? Research by American Diploma Project indicates that regardless if students go on to college or into the workforce after graduation, they still need the same knowledge and skills, particularly in English and mathematics. At a minimum, high school course requirements need to cover four years of rigorous English and four years of math, including Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, and data analysis and statistics. The 4x4 approach
Labor Market: The Rhetoric India and China are producing more engineers We are not graduating enough engineers Academic skills required for college are the same as required for workplace
More Rhetoric… If trends in U.S. research and education continue, our nation will squander its economic leadership, and the result will be a lower standard of living for the American people…. By 2015 [the country needs to] double the number of bachelor’s degrees awarded annually to U.S. students in science, math, and engineering. (National Summit on Competitiveness 2005) The United States faces an unprecedented challenge to its long-term global economic leadership. And a fall from leadership would threaten the security of the nation and the prosperity of its citizens.… High school students in the U.S. perform well below those in other industrialized nations in the fields of mathematics and science … [and thus we need to make] STEM education a national priority. (Council on Competitiveness 2004).
The Argument: Whether graduates are going to college or work, they need the same skills HS Reform advocates argue that data show a high degree of convergence between the knowledge and skills students need to succeed on the job and in college.
To be college and work ready, students need to complete a rigorous sequence of courses In math: Four courses Content equivalent to Algebra I and II, Geometry, and a fourth course such as Statistics or Precalculus In English: –Four courses –Content equivalent to four years of grade- level English or higher (i.e., honors or AP English) To cover the content American Diploma Project research shows students need to be college and work ready, high school graduates need to take:
Achievement Flat or Declining in Reading, 17 year olds, NAEP Source: NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress. Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP 12.9 Academic Credits 19 Academic Credits
HS Achievement In Math Source: NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress and NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress. Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP 1.7 Math Credits 3.6 math credits 2.4 Math Credits
% of 9 th Graders who complete High School 68% Source: One-Third of a Nation (ETS, 2005)
When do they leave? 9 th grade 10 th grade 11 th grade 12 th grade 5 th year Plank, 2005
Transition to college: The Challenge Source: Education Weekly March 2005 100 Start 9 th Grade 68 Graduate HS in 4 Years 40 Start College 27 Start Sophomore Year 18 Graduate a 4- College in 5 Years 31% Leave with 0 Credits 31%
Remediation Source: NCES (2003), Remedial Education at Degree Granting PS Institutions in fall 2000 Patrick M. Callan, Joni E. Finney, Michael W. Kirst, Michael D. Usdan and Andrea Venezia, The Governance Divide: A Report on a Four-State Study on Improving College Readiness and Success (San Jose: The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2005).
Remediation: Another take Once many of these same students get into college, 40% of four-year students and 63% of two-year students require remediation. (a report from Education Commission of the States)
Recall the assumptions: the emergent workforce requires: More emphasis on mathematics, science, engineering and technology More emphasis on “college for all” All students need the same 4x4 curriculum
What the data show… 94% of workers reported using math on the job, but, only 1 22% reported math “higher” than basic 19% reported using “Algebra 1” 9% reported using “Algebra 2” Among upper level white collar workers 1 30% reported using math up to Algebra 1 14% reported using math up to Algebra 2 Less than 5% of workers make extensive use of Algebra 2, Trigonometry, Calculus, or Geometry on the job 2 1.M. J. Handel survey of 2300 employees cited in “What Kind of Math Matters” Education Week, June 12 2007 2.Carnevale & Desrochers cited in “What Kind of Math Matters” Education Week, June 12 2007
College for all? (1)Current Population Survey (2000) (2)Bureau of Labor Statistics (2002)
The Fallacy of Composition: What is true for the individual will also be true for the large group or society as a whole. (Cappelli, 2008)
The Effect? This would (and some argue has) lower the price of an educated worker (Cappelli, 2008) Downward occupational mobility
Recall the assumptions… India & China are producing more engineers than U.S. US produces 222,000 engineers India produces 215,000 engineers China produces 352,000 engineers* We are not graduating enough engineers S&E wages have actually declined in real terms and unemployment rates have increased** * Duke University Study, 2006; **Rand, 2006;
What the data show… Analysis of the flow of students up through the S&E pipeline, when it reaches the labor market, suggests the education system produces qualified graduates far in excess of demand: S&E occupations make up only about one-twentieth of all workers, and each year there are more than three times as many S&E four-year college graduates as S&E job openings Urban Institute, 2007. 435,000 U.S. citizens and permanent residents a year graduated with bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in science and engineering. Over the same period, there were about 150,000 jobs added annually to the science and engineering workforce.. http://www.businessweek.com/print/smallbiz/content/oct2007/sb20071025_827398.htm http://www.businessweek.com/print/smallbiz/content/oct2007/sb20071025_827398.htm
The Real Labor Opportunity Middle Skill Occupations
Middle Skill Occupations (B.A./B.S. NOT Required) Occupation Air Traffic Controller Storage and distribution manager Transportation manager Non-retail sales manager Forest fire fighting/prevention supervisor Municipal fire fighting/prevention supervisor Real estate broker Elevator installers and repairer Dental hygienist Immigration and Customs inspector Commercial pilot Salary 102,300 66,600 59,300 58,920 58,902 58,720 58,710 58,350 53,990 53,870 Farr, M. & Shatkin, L. (2006) The 300 Best Jobs That Don't Require a Four-Year Degree. (US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics)
HS Reform & Labor Market Realities …to right these workplace problems, policy makers are looking in the wrong direction…paying attention to skills workers really need to succeed, not on an assumed set of skills that may not be so critical after all... Robert Lerman (2008)
What are the real school problems? A high and rising drop out rate Students who graduate are lacking in basic math and science skills Most students think they are going to college but do not prepare for it or any other possible future
The real challenges of education reform are: Engagement – attending school and completing (graduating) high school Achievement – academic (and technical) course taking; grades, test scores Transition – to postsecondary education without the need for remediation; and to the workplace
FINDING SOLUTIONS TO THE REAL PROBLEMS OF WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION REFORM WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT CTE?
81% of dropouts said “real world learning” may have influenced them to stay in school Bridgeland, et al - Gates Foundation Report, 2005
CTE Structures and Pedagogies and Dropping Out Students in or Career Majors are 16% more likely to graduate from high school. Students in Tech Prep are 30% more likely to complete high school. Students who participated in specific STW activities are 18% more likely to complete high school. Stone & Aliaga, 2005
CTE & Achievement CTE concentrators take more and higher level math than general track counterparts (Stone & Aliaga, 2002) CTE concentrators increased 12 th grade NAEP by 8 scale points (vs 4 for non-CTE students) in reading; 11 points (vs. no change for non- CTE students) in math (NAVE, 2004) Students in schools with highly integrated, rigorous academic & CTE programs have significantly higher student achievement in reading, math & science than students in other schools (SREB, 2004)
CTE & Transition to Work CTE graduates are 10-15% more likely to be in the labor force and earn 8-9% more than academic graduates (Sage Foundation Report, 2001) 7 years following graduation, CTE students had earnings that increased by 2% for every CTE course they took (NAVE,2004) HS CTE concentrators are 2.5 times more likely to be working while pursuing postsecondary education than are college prep students (SREB, 2006)
CTE: What do we know? CTE keeps kids in school CTE helps kids focus their PS education plans CTE is an economic benefit to participants and to states CTE-based structures can affect achievement and transition of youth to college and work, but...
PROGRAMS OF STUDY One Solution to the Real Problems of Education
A cluster or pathway approach to solving the “problem” of high school Strategy to organize instruction and student experiences around career themes (Focus on an industry cluster of related occupations) Incorporates existing school reform strategies (career academies, career pathways, small learning communities, Tech Prep) Connects to business and higher education
Perkins – “Programs of Study” State approved programs, which may be adopted by local education agencies and postsecondary institutions to be offered as an option to students when planning for and completing future coursework, for career and technical content areas. Incorporate secondary education and postsecondary education elements;
Programs of Study Element 2 Include... coherent and rigorous content aligned with challenging academic standards and relevant career and technical content in a coordinated, non-duplicative progression of courses that align secondary education with postsecondary education... to adequately prepare students to succeed in postsecondary education;
Programs of Study – Element 3 May include the opportunity for secondary education students to participate in dual or concurrent enrollment programs or other ways to acquire postsecondary education credits; What systems issues will you need to address? Dual Enrollment Options Student attends CC CC Instructor comes to HS HS teacher teaches CC course
Programs of Study – Element 5 Lead to an industry-recognized credential or certificate at the postsecondary level, or an associate or baccalaureate degree.
Programs of Study Require a Career Development Framework: Elementary Students begin CD by heightening their awareness of career opportunities Middle School Focus: Exposure to and exploration of careers High School Students investigate and prepare for their future careers through experience based work opportunities (IL State Board of Education, 2000)
A Career Development Approach Fantasy…Growth …Exploration………Establishment Elementary Middle High WBL/College School School School
How Personal Pathways Work K-5: Career Awareness Introduction to the world of careers 6-8: Career Exploration Discovering interest areas Grade 8: Transition Choosing a career cluster and major (can change easily at any time later) 9-12: Career Preparation Academics and technical courses, intensive guidance, individual graduation plans Postsecondary: Career Preparation Achieving credentials: college, certification, apprenticeship, military Employment: Career Advancement Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning Steps to Success
Middle Skill Occupations: Energy and Power Energy Competency Model Lineworker, Plant Operator Technician Pipefitter / Pipelayer
Construction Maintenance Operations Engineering and Technology Science and Math Career Clusters A grouping of occupations and broad industries based on commonalities. The sixteen career clusters provide an organizing tool for schools, small learning communities, academies and magnet schools. Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Planning, managing, and providing technical services Architecture and Construction Designing, planning, managing, building and maintaining the built environment Clusters Pathways Manufacturing Production Process Development: Quality Assurance Manufacturing Planning, managing, and performing the processing of materials into the intermediate or final products Energy Career Cluster Map Design and Pre- construction Maintenance, Installation & Repair Logistics & Inventory Control Pathway
Summer Camp Lego League Career Choices Science Fairs Career Day Focus Career Exploration The Education Continuum Middle School High School Technical and Community College Military and Second Career
The Education Continuum Middle School High School Technical and Community College Military and Second Career Career and Tech Ed. Majors Career Academies Summer Academies Boy Scout merit badges Robotics Competitions Science Fairs SkillsUSA Focus Work Readiness and Skill Building
The Education Continuum Middle School High School Technical and Community College Military and Second Career Boot Camps Regional Skill Centers Associate Degrees Common Curriculum Partnerships for hands on training Focus Specific Career Skills
The Education Continuum Middle School High School Technical and Community College Military and Second Career Job Corp Helmets to Hard Hats Career Transition Office training support Focus Transition Skills
CURRICULUM INTEGRATION A Second Solution to the Real Problems of Education
Why Focus on technical & academic integration? CTE provides a math-rich context CTE curriculum/pedagogies do not systematically emphasize academic skill development
Curriculum Integration Approaches Incorporating more academics into CTE Incorporating more CTE into academics Vertical alignment (articulation) Senior projects Career Academies Career Clusters
One Approach Math-in-CTE A study to test the possibility that enhancing the embedded mathematics in Technical Education coursework will build skills in this critical academic area without reducing technical skill development. 1. What we did 2.What we found 3.What we learned
Key Questions of the Study Does enhancing the CTE curriculum with math increase math skills of CTE students? Can we infuse enough math into CTE curricula to meaningfully enhance the academic skills of CTE participants (Perkins III Core Indicator) Without reducing technical skill development What works?
Study Design: Participants Participants Experimental CTE teacher Math teacher Control CTE teacher Primary Role Implement the math enhancements Provide support for the CTE teacher Teach their regular curriculum
What we tested: Professional Development CTE-Math Teacher Teams; occupational focus Curriculum mapping Scope and Sequence On going collaboration CTE and math teachers
What we tested: The Pedagogy 1. Introduce the CTE lesson 2. Assess students’ math awareness 3. Work through the embedded example 4. Work through related, contextual examples 5. Work through traditional math examples 6. Students demonstrate understanding 7. Formal assessment
What we found Students in the experimental classes scored significantly higher on Terra Nova and Accuplacer The effect: 71 st percentile & 67 th percentile No negative effect on technical skills 11% of class time devoted to enhanced math lessons Five core principles emerged
Power of the New Professional Development Model Old Model PD New Model PD Total Surprise!
Challenge to you Clarify the problem High skill? AND/OR Middle skill? Build an appropriate response Career clusters to organize pathways to a productive future Program of studies to help parents and their children plan for that productive future Teach the critical core curriculum in a context that adds meaning and value to student learning
For more: James.Stone@Louisville.edu www.nccte.org