Presentation on theme: "莎劇賞析 之十一： 《冬天的故事》 The Winter’s Tale 董 崇 選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 懂更懂學習英文網站負責人 網址："— Presentation transcript:
莎劇賞析 之十一： 《冬天的故事》 The Winter’s Tale 董 崇 選 中山醫大應用外語系教授 懂更懂學習英文網站負責人 網址： http://dgdel.nuch.edu.tw
I. The Plot: Type: Tragi-comedy ( 悲喜劇 ) Time: the legendary past ( 傳說中的古代 ) Locale: Sicilia ( 西西里亞 ) & Bohemia ( 波希米亞 ) First presented: 1611
II. Principal Characters: Leontes ( 雷昂提斯 ): King of Sicilia Polixenes ( 波力克希尼斯 ): king of Bohemia Hermione ( 荷邁爾尼 ): Queen to Leontes Paulina: Hermione’s lady-in-waiting Antigonus: Paulina’s husband Camillo: Leontes’ trusted advisor Florizel ( 福洛里傑爾 ): Prince of Bohemia Perdita ( 朴娥迪塔 ): daughter of Leontes & Hermione Autolycus: a ballad monger ( 賣唱民謠者 ) An old shepherd & his son (a clown, 鄉巴佬 )
III. The Story: 第一幕 :After a nine months’ visit to Sicilia, Polixenes wishes to return to Bohemia. His friend Leontes entreats him to stay longer in Sicilia, but Polixenes declines the entreaty. After Hermione’s begging, however, he agrees to stay another week. This causes a sudden jealousy in Leontes, who then voices his suspicions to Camillo and orders Camillo to kill Polixenes. Yet, Camillo warns Polixenes of his danger and urges him to fly. To protect himself as well, Camillo accompanies Polixenes to Bohemia, rousing Leontes’ further suspicions.
III. The Story: 第二幕 : After learning of Polixenes’ flight with Camillo, Leontes orders Mamillian (his young son) taken from his mother and Hermione sent to prison. He also sends two men to consult Apollo’s oracle to determine the queen’s guilt. Paulina discovers that Hermione has prematurely given birth to a daughter. The birth does not lessen the King’s suspicion. Leontes even asks Antigonus to take the baby away and desert it outside his own realm.
III. The Story: 第三幕 : Leontes orders a public arraignment of Hermione. At the public hearing, Hermione denies Leontes’ accusation of adultery and conspiracy against his life. Apollo’s oracle declares that Hermione, Polixenes and Camillo are innocent. Leontes refuses to believe the oracle. Mamillius is reported to have died right at the time. Leontes suddenly comes to his senses and repents. Later soon, Paulina says Hermione is also dead. Meanwhile, Antigonus leaves the baby girl in deserted country near Bohemian coast before he himself is mangled by a bear. The baby is found by a shepherd and his son.
III. The Story: 第四幕 : Sixteen years later, the baby has become Perdita, the shepherd’s daughter, who is loved by Florizel, the son of Polixenes. Camillo now wishes to return to Sicilia, knowing Leontes has repented. Autolycus picks the shepherd’s pocket. Florizel, disguised as a shepherd named Doricles, comes to woo Perdita. Polixenes and Camillo, also in disguise, come to detect the lovers. Finally, the King reveals himself and threatens Perdita and her father for entrapping the Prince. Camillo counsels the lovers to flee to Sicilia. The shepherd and his son seek to tell the King that Perdita is a changeling. Autolycus entices them aboard Forezel’s ship bound for Sicilia.
III. The Story: 第五幕 : Leontes promises Paulina not to marry again without her consent. Florizel and Perdita arrive in Sicilia and are welcomed by Leontes. Polixenes has followed. The shepherds have disclosed the secret of Perdita’s birth. Leontes and Polixenes are joyfully reconciled and the union of the two lovers is approved. All go to see a lifelike statue of Hermione. When Leontes is determined to kiss the likeness of his wife, Paulina orders the statue to move. Amid general joy, Leontes suggests that Camillo marry the faithful Paulina.
IV. Quotable Lines: “Too hot, too hot! To mingle friendship far, is mingling bloods.” --Leontes aside “What! Hast smutched thy nose? They say it is a copy out of mine. Come, captain, We must be neat; not neat, but cleanly, captain: And yet the steer, the heifer and the calf Are all called neat.” --Leontes to Mamillius
IV. Quotable Lines: “I am sure ‘tis safer to Avoid what’s grown than question how ‘tis born.” --Camillo to Polixenes “The silence often of pure innocence Persuades, when speaking fails.” --Paulina to Emilia “... if I shall be condemned Upon surmises, all proofs sleeping else But what your jealousies awake, I tell you ‘Tis rigor and not law.” --Hermione to Leontes et al.
IV. Quotable Lines: “... I have heard it said There is an art which, in their piedness, shares With great creating nature.” --Perdita to Polixenes in disguise “Say there is; yet nature is made better by no mean But nature makes that mean: so, over that art, Which you say adds to nature, is an art That nature makes. You see, sweet maid, we marry A gentler scion to the wildest stock, And make conceive a bark of baser kind By bud of nobler race. This is an art Which does mend nature—change it rather—but The art itself is nature.” --Polixenes in disguise to Perdita
IV. Quotable Lines: “I should leave grazing, were I of your flock, And only live by gazing.” --Camillo to Perdita “Each your doing, So singular in each particular, Crowns what you are doing, in the present deeds, That all your acts are queens.” --Florizel to Perdita
IV. Quotable Lines: “... for once or twice I was about to speak and tell him plainly, The selfsame sun that shines upon his court Hides not his visage from our cottage, but Looks on alike.” --Perdita to Camillo “Lift up they looks: From my succession wipe me, father; I Am heir to my affection.” --Florizel to Camillo et al.
IV. Quotable Lines: “Prosperity is the very bond of love, Whose fresh complexion and whose heart together Affliction alters.” --Camillo to F & P “... though authority be a stubborn bear, yet he is oft led by the nose with gold: show the inside of your purse to the outside of his hand, and no more ado.” --Clown to the Shepherd “What fine chisel could ever yet cut breath?” --Leontes to all
V. Discussion: –What are the two main themes of this play? Jealousy and love? –In what sense can we say the play is indeed a winter’s tale? –Why is this play called a tragic-comedy? –Is Leontes like Othello? Is Perdita “nature’s bastard”? –What is said and suggested about art vs. nature in this play?