Presentation on theme: "莎劇賞析 之二：《理查三世》 Richard III 董 崇 選 中山醫大 應用外語系 教授 「懂更懂 學習英文 網站」負責人 網址："— Presentation transcript:
莎劇賞析 之二：《理查三世》 Richard III 董 崇 選 中山醫大 應用外語系 教授 「懂更懂 學習英文 網站」負責人 網址：
I. The Plot: Type: historical chronicle ( 歷史紀事 ) Time: 15th century ( 十五世紀 ) Locale: England ( 英國 ) First presented: c. 1593
II. Principal Characters: Richard: Duke of Gloucester, afterward King Richard III King Edward IV: eldest son of Duke of York George: Duke of Clarence, brother of Richard & Edward IV Queen Margaret: widow of King Henry VI Duke of Buckingham: Richard’s kinsman and supporter Edward & Richard: sons of King Edward IV Henry Tudor: Earl of Richmond, afterward King Henry VII Thomas Stanley: Earl of Derby, stepfather of Richmond Hastings: Lord Chamberlain under Edward IV Queen Elizabeth: wife of King Edward IV Lady Anne: daughter-in-law of Henry VI Duchess of York: mother of Edward IV, Clarence, & Richard III
III. The Story: 第一幕 :Richard describes the triumph of the house of York over that of Lancaster, and determines to act as a villain. He stirs King Edward against George (Duke of Clarence) and plans George’s death. He schemes to marry Anne to further his ambition. He flatters her that he killed her husband (Prince Edward) and King Henry VI (her father-in-law) for her sake. She finally accepts his attentions. Queen Elizabeth fears that Richard will be Protector to her son if the King dies. In the King’s presence Richard implies that the Queen wishes the death of George. Margaret comes and blames all, particularly Richard, for the murder of her son and husband. Richard asks two murderers to kill Clarence at the Tower.
III. The Story: 第二幕 : King Edward reconciles the Queen and others for peace. However, when the Queen urges the King to forgive his brother (George, Duke of Clarence), Richard reports that he is already dead. The King is stricken with remorse. Richard suggests that the Queen’s relatives knew of Clarence’s death. The Duchess of York mourns the death and is joined by the Queen, who laments her own husband’s death. Richard, Buckingham and others suggest bringing Prince Edward from Ludlow to be crowned King. Secretly they plot to separate the young prince from the Queen and her kin. Citizens fear civil discord. Richard seizes the young prince and imprisons his escorts.
III. The Story: 第三幕 : Richard and Buckingham arrive in London with the Prince. Hastings informs them that the Queen has fled to sanctuary with her 2nd son (Duke of York). Richard persuades Cardinal Bourchier to bring forth the young Duke. The two boys are made to lodge in the Tower. Richard tries to discover whether Hastings will support his plot. He also promises Buckingham the earldom of Hereford and other possessions when he becomes King. Hastings is warned by Stanley. Rivers, Vaugham and Grey are executed. When preparing for young Edward’s coronation, Hastings is arrested and executed while the Queen is accused of witchcraft. The Mayor of London is made to speak for the villains. They suggest that Edward and his children are illegitimate and Richard is the only rightful heir to the throne. Richard shows false piety and reluctance to take the throne.
III. The Story: 第四幕 : Richard forbids everyone to have access to the young princes, and suggests to Buckingham that the boys be disposed of. Buckingham asks time to think it over, thus causing Richard’s suspicion. Richard then hires someone to kill the boys and plans to dispose of his wife Anne so that he can marry Edward’s daughter. Buckingham decides to flee. Clarence’s daughter is made to marry an obscure, powerless man. Richard seeks the hand of his niece Elizabeth. News comes that the Bishop of Ely has joined Richmond and Buckingham is in revolt. Richard tells the Queen of his devoted love for her daughter and dispels her bitterness with honeyed words. Richmond’s army has landed. Buckingham is captured. Stanley’s son is held as hostage. The Queen wants her daughter to marry Richmond.
III. The Story: 第五幕 : Buckingham is executed. Richmond leads his men toward an encounter with King Richard. The righteousness of his cause inspires him with confidence of success. Both Richard and Richmond encamp on Bosworth Field. The ghosts of Richard’s murdered victims appear each in his dreams, urging him to despair, while Richmond is heartened by the good omen of his dreams. Richard loses his horse in fighting, and seeks vainly to engage Richmond in single combat. At last, he is killed. Richmond announces the victory and prophesies an end of the wars between the houses of Lancaster and York by his union with Elizabeth of York.
IV. Quotable Lines: “I am determined to prove a villain, And hate the idle pleasures of these days. Plots have I laid... To set my brother Clarence and the King In deadly hate, the one against the other.” --Richard in soliloquy “’Tis not the king that sends you to the Tower; My Lady Grey, his wife, Clarence, ‘tis she That tempers him to this extremity.” --Richard to Clarence
IV. Quotable Lines: “Your beauty was the cause of that effect: Your beauty, that did haunt me in my sleep To undertake the death of all the world, So I might live one hour in your sweet bosom.” --Richard to Anne “... the world is grown so bad That wrens make prey where eagles dare not perch. Since every Jack became a gentleman There’s many a gentle person made a jack.” --Richard to Elizabeth
IV. Quotable Lines: “Why strew thou sugar on that bottled spider, Whose deadly web ensnares thee about? Fool, fool; thou whet a knife to kill thyself. The day will come that thou shall wish for me To help thee curse this poisonous hunch-backed toad. --Margaret to Elizabeth “I’ll not meddle with it; it makes a man a coward. (it 指 良知 ) A man cannot steal but it accuses him; a man cannot Swear but it checks him; a man cannot lie with his neighbor’s Wife but it detects him.... It fills a man full of obstacles... And every man that means to live well endeavors to trust to Himself, and live without it.” --one Murderer to another
IV. Quotable Lines: “Edward, my lord, thy son, our king, is dead. Why grow the branches, when the root is gone? --Elizabeth to Duchess of York “I have bewept a worthy husband’s death, And lived with looking on his images: But now two mirrors of his princely semblance Are cracked in pieces by malignant death; And I, for comfort, have but one false glass, That grieves me when I see my shame in him.” –Duchess of York to Elizabeth & Clarence’s kids
IV. Quotable Lines: “I think there’s never a man in Christendom Can lesser hide his love or hate than he, For by his face straight shall you know his heart.” --Hastings to Stanley “Bad is the world, and all will come to naught When such ill-dealing must be seen in thought.” --Scrivener in soliloquy “And be not easily won to our requests: Play the maid’s part: still answer nay, and take it.” --Buckingham to Richard
IV. Quotable Lines: “Yet so much is my poverty of spirit, So mighty and so many my defects, That I would rather hide me from my greatness— Being a bark to brook no mighty sea— Than in my greatness covet to be hid, And in the vapor of my glory smothered.” --Richard to the public “He hath no friends but what are friends for fear, Which in his dearest need will fly from him.” --Blunt to Richmond “Conscience is but a word that cowards use, Devised at first to keep the strong in awe.” --Richard to Norfolk
V. Discussion: –What kind of man is Richard III? A Machiavellian villain? –What do you think of the female characters in the play? –What is suggested about power struggle, in the play ? –What is said about conscience, in the play?