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Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Personality Assessment.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Personality Assessment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 12 Personality Assessment

2 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Personality is the reasonably stable pattern of thoughts, emotions and behavior that distinguish one person from another. What is Personality?

3 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Traits - t he distinguishing characteristics or qualities possessed by an individual States - the transitory exhibition of some trait Types - the c lustering of various states. If traits can be considered specific characteristics of an individual, types can be regarded as a general description of a person Key Terms of Personality

4 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Personality inventories can be used to measure personality traits/types. Personality inventories can also be used to increase self-awareness. Personality Inventories

5 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Rational Approach Theory-based Approach Criterion Group Approach Factor Analysis Combined Approaches Personality Test Methods

6 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved I. Structured personality inventories II. Projective techniques III. Instruments that assess positive aspects of personality Categories of Personality Inventories

7 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Structured (also called objective) personality inventories are usually standardized, self-report instruments Structured tests have several benefits: Quick administration Quick and reliable scoring Use with computers Structured Personality Inventories

8 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Structured Personality Inventories Measure pathology: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI- III) Nonpathological: California Personality Inventory (CPI) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) Sixteen Personality Factor (16PF)

9 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Most frequently used and most researched personality inventory Developed to make diagnoses Construction: Large pool of items Administered to psychiatric patients and non- psychiatric patients Retained items that differentiated a given diagnostic group from the non-clinical group 567 T/F items Administered in multiple languages in paper or computer forma Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

10 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Test Takers The MMPI-2 can be administered to individuals aged 18 years and older who can read at a minimum 6th grade level. Test Administrators Use of the MMPI-2 is restricted to qualified professionals who are licensed or credentialed and have adequate training in assessment, personality theory, psychopathology, and diagnosis. Qualifications

11 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved T scores are used to measure outcomes on the MMPI-2 Scores above 65 on Clinical Scales are considered high Scores on individual scales should account for other elevated scores, as well as the context of the test taker Scoring

12 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved CNS- Cannot Say VRIN – Variable TRIN – True Response Inconsistency F – Infrequency F( B ) - Back Infrequency F( P ) - Infrequency Psychopathology L – Lie K – Correction S- Superlative Presentation Validity Scales

13 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Hypochondriasis (Hs) 2-Depression (D) 3-Hysteria (Hy) 4-Psychopathic deviation (Pd) 5-Masculinity-femininity (Mf) 6-Paranoia (Pa) 7-Psychasthenia (Pt) 8-Schizophrenia (Sc) 9-Hypomania (Ma) 10-Social Introversion (Si) Clinical Scales

14 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Self-report instrument Assess DSM-IV-related personality disorders and clinical syndromes Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III)

15 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Clinical Personality Pattern Scales (DSM-IV, Axis II) 1 - Schizoid 2A - Avoidant 2B - Depressive 3 - Dependent 4 - Histrionic 5 - Narcissistic 6A - Antisocial 6B - Sadistic (Aggressive) 7 - Compulsive 8A - Negativistic (Passive- Aggressive) 8B - Masochistic (Self-Defeating) Severe Personality Pathology Scales S - Schizotypal C - Borderline P - Paranoid Clinical Syndrome Scales (DSM-IV, Axis I) A - Anxiety H - Somatoform N - Bipolar: Manic D - Dysthymia B - Alcohol Dependence T - Drug Dependence R - Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Severe Syndrome Scales SS - Thought Disorder CC - Major Depression PP - Delusional Disorder Modifying Indices X - Disclosure Y - Desirability Z - Debasement Validity Index V - Validity MCMI-III

16 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Self-administered Normed for non-pathological clients, ages 12 to 70 Uses 434 true-false statements to assess personality in 20 scales One of the most commonly used personality assessments California Psychological Inventory (CPI)

17 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Based on the typology theories of Carl Jung. Generates a four letter code representing one of sixteen different personality types. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

18 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Measures four scales: Extraversion versus Introversion Sensing versus Intuition Thinking versus Feeling Judging versus Perceiving

19 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Uses 187 items to assess sixteen personality factors and five global factors. Uses sten scores for outcomes. The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire, Fifth Edition (16PF)

20 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Warmth Reasoning Emotional Stability Dominance Liveliness Rule-Consciousness Social Boldness Sensitivity  Vigilance  Abstractedness  Privateness  Apprehension  Openness to Change  Self-Reliance  Perfectionism  Tension

21 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Extraversion Anxiety Tough-Mindedness Independence Self-Control

22 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Uses test taker responses to ambiguous test items to reveal personal characteristics about the test taker to the test administrator. Projective tests are tied to psychodynamic theories emphasizing unconscious processes. There are some questions as to the validity and reliability of projective tests. Projective Instruments and Techniques

23 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved cards Printed inkblots, symmetrical right to left 5 black/white, 5 colored Each card presented individually Record examinees response verbatim Inquiry—what prompted each response? The Rorschach

24 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved

25 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Uses a series of black-and-white cards with pictures of situations, objects, and characters Examinees instructed to tell a story about the picture. Who are the people? What are they thinking and feeling? What came before this scene and how will it turn out? Not well-researched; difficult to evaluate reliability and validity The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

26 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Projective Questions “If you had three wishes, what would you wish for?” “If you had a magic wand, what would you change about your life?” Rotter Incomplete Sentences Blank “I like …”; “What annoys me …” Story Completion Verbal Projective Techniques

27 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Projective drawings typically involve test takers drawing a picture. Test givers then explore the meaning of the drawing with the test taker. Projective drawings often tie specific meanings to various dimensions of drawings. Projective Drawings

28 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Draw-a-Person House-Tree-Person Technique Kinetic Family Drawing Projective Drawing Assessments

29 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved House-Tree-Person

30 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Based on positive psychology Assess positive aspects of personality, such as life satisfaction, self-efficacy, resiliency, coping skills, well-being. Examples: Quality of Life Inventory Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Pier-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale Personality Inventories with a Positive Focus

31 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Some test takers may have response styles that do not represent the test takers actual personality. Some personality assessments, such as the MMPI-2, attempt to detect problems with response styles.

32 Assessment Procedures for Counselors and Helping Professionals, 7e Drummond/Jones © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved Social desirability: choosing the response that bests presents self in a favorable light. Acquiescent: tendency of the test taker to accept or agree with statements regardless of the item content (i.e., answering all items as “true” or “yes”). Nonacquiescence: disagreeing with whatever item is presented (i.e., answering all items as “false” or “no”). Deviance: making unusual or uncommon responses. Extreme: choosing extreme, rather than middle, ratings on a rating scale. Gambling/cautiousness: guessing, or not guessing, when in doubt about the answer.


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