System Selection Criteria Physical: Light foot traffic or heavy mechanized traffic? Industrial process or laboratory/clean room? Chemical: Cleaning agents, process chemicals, combinations. Temperature: Freezers, steam washdown, extreme ambient temps. Electro-static: High-voltage equipment, static-generating machinery Value Engineering: Floor design for the immediate environment Multiple issues occurring over one area When designing a floor and/or wall system, selection of products will depend upon working environment and severity of use.
Systems Coatings Slurries Mortars Urethane Cement Wall systems When designing a floor and/or wall system, selection of products will depend upon working environment and severity of use.
Coatings Advantages: Inexpensive Aesthetics Cleanability Concrete protection Chemical resistance* Disadvantages: Resistance to physical abuse Repair of poor substrate conditions Less product for the same amount of surface preparation Life-cycle costing
What is a Slurry? Resinous coatings filled with aggregate (approximately 2 parts aggregate to 1 part resin) which is applied at 1/16” to 3/8” in thickness. Advantages: Great value/installed cost Significant improvement to abuse compared to coatings Non-skid applications Resin-rich systems Disadvantages: Moderate to good resistance to physical abuse Will not resurface poor concrete Thermal shock resistance Downtime
What is a Mortar? Resinous coatings filled with aggregate (approximately 4 or 5 parts aggregate to 1 part resin), which is applied by trowel and finished. The systems range in thickness from 3/16” to 3/8”. Advantages: Resistance to physical abuse Resurface poor concrete Thermal shock resistance Life-cycle costing Disadvantages: Cost Skill level required for installation Resin-aggregate ratios Downtime
What is a Urethane Cement? Urethane emulsion combined with cement and silica sand (approximately 3 parts aggregate to 1 part resin), which is raked and finished at ¼” to 3/8” thickness. Advantages: Great resistance to physical abuse Bond in wet environments Thermal shock resistance Fast installations Chemical resistance Disadvantages: Aesthetics Cost Limited colors Skill level required for installation
Concrete Requirements: Mix Design Standard mix design: Topical treatment: Seamless, film-building sealers, form release Fiber reinforcement: Coatings, self leveling floors 3/16” High early mix design: Concrete additives: Plasticizers, Gill 33 Proper concrete mix design can produce a slab that is ideally suited for bonding to a polymer topping.
Successful Concrete Sub grade Vapor barrier Water to cement ratio Aggregate selection and gradation Finishing Curing “At-use” environment Surface preparation Moisture testing Control conditions of installation Dew point vs. surface temperature during installation
Moisture-related issues Improper treatment of moisture-related issues can result in blisters, delamination and potentially a complete floor system failure. Moisture Measurement: A simple calcium chloride test will determine the presence and force of any moisture migrating through the slab. Acceptable levels vary with each system and manufacturer. Causes: Fast-track construction schedules Mix design (wet pour) Topical treatments (slow hydration) Pouring slab in a pan Ground or soil conditions Humidity inside vs. outside Chemistry changes in flooring products
Treatments for Moisture Problems There are several techniques/products available for the prevention and remediation of moisture-related problems. Slab design: vapor barrier, mix design Time: may not be on your side Temperature and humidity control Topical vapor barriers (Aqua Armor, Koester, FloorSeal) Product or System: water-based products, thin “breathable” coatings and urethane cements
Scheduling & Planning for Work Heat: Temperature must be at least 55*F for coatings and toppings. 65*F to 75*F is ideal for most systems. Room/slab temperature directly affects coverage rates of product. Light: The presence of finished lighting impacts application schedules, cure time and aesthetics of finished floor. Power supply: 220v 3-phase, 60 Amp. or 480v 3-phase, 30 Amp. Installation equipment pulls total of amperage when starting up, and will blow breakers. A timely and efficient mobilization requires room preparation and proper communication between Project Management, Flooring Contractor, and all other trades.
Scheduling & Planning for Work Other Trades: Damage to floors, walk off job site, power, lighting Effect on existing operations: Product odor, contamination of inventory, work areas adjacent to application, fire, safety Effect on facility operations and return to service.
Slab Preparation Chemical process: Effective in the removal of adhesives, oils, animal fats. Acid etching, stripping, detergents. Mechanical process: Shot blasting, grinding, scarifying, scabbling. Water process: Water jet blasting is entirely dust free. Consider its effect on product selection and time of application. Dust Control: All slab prep machinery is connected to vacuum with HEPA filtration.
Wrap-up Return to service: Maximum allowable shut-down time can dictate the type of system and product selected. Quick-cure polymers, such as MMA and urethane concrete systems can greatly reduce application time and return facilities to service in a matter of hours. Application rates: Installation rates will vary with required prep work, system selected, product manufacturer and schedule. Per-foot rates can range from $2.00/ft. up to $12.00/ft. or more.