Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21. The Politics of Paralysis Democrats and Republicans fought to win elections. – Improved party organization, – rigid voter loyalty, – broad."— Presentation transcript:
The Politics of Paralysis Democrats and Republicans fought to win elections. – Improved party organization, – rigid voter loyalty, – broad ideological similarities Democrats, centered in the South and supported too by immigrant political machines in the industrial North, believed in states rights and limited government. Strongest in northern cities and among business leaders and the middle class – Republicans favored industrial development. Democrats -hands-off government. Republicans -Protestants who favored a politics of morality, social discipline, and energetic government. Pendleton Act- to improve quality of bureaucrats, examination of federal jobs McKinley Tariff-raised tariffs on imported goods by 50% repealed by Wilson-Gorman Tariff Bland-Allison Act -limited form of silver coinage, compromise by silverites and gold bugs
Revolt of the Farmers No one seemed to have the interests of farmers much in mind, so they took matters into their own hands. Biggest problem-debt. – first in local chapters or "granges." – Munn v. Illinois: right of Illinois to regulate private property as it was devoted for public use. – "Granger laws" regulating shippers and processors, and later convinced Congress to create a federal Interstate Commerce Commission (1887)ICC. – People's or Populist Party. The frustrations of farmers now had a national political outlet; modest success in the 1892 elections showed that many Americans were alienated from the two major parties. – William Jennings Bryan- “Cross of Gold Speech”
Populist Party (people’s pty) Agrarian demands Direct election of senators and other electoral reforms Low interest loans- use crops as collateral Tariff reduction Graduated income tax Public ownership of railroads Federal funding for irrigation research Ban landownership by aliens Silver
New Realignment depression Strikes, protests, and masses of unemployed workers were evidences of the strain. – The Republicans supported gold as the nation's monetary standard. – The Democrats were split; their northern wing favored gold and the southern and western wings favored the coinage of silver as a way to relieve the depression by increasing the supply of money. African-Americans found themselves the victims of a rising tide of racism. Segregation and disfranchisement undercut black political and social progress. In response, African-American leaders split over whether to follow a policy of accommodating white discrimination or fighting it in the courts. In the end most followed the path of accommodation. Republicans- economic recovery – Well organized – using modern techniques of publicity and management – and relying on an executive with a national agenda
Imperialism indirect control through the spread of American products, ideas, and influence. Manifest Destiny
White Man’s Burden Social Darwinism
Spanish-American War 4 months Spain owned: Cuba, Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam. Yellow Journalism: exaggerated reporting Sympathy with Cuba De Lome letter: McKinley was “weak and catering to the rabble” Remember the Maine – Stationed in Havana- blew up in Feb. 15, 1898 – Demanded Spain grant Cuba independence – Refused= WAR Rough riders- Led by Teddy Roosevelt – Volunteer cavalry Buffalo Soldiers- 9 th and 10 th cavalries, all African American Buffalo Soldiers- – Took San Juan Hill George Dewey – Navy commander – War in Philippines – Motive? Sugar cane, refuel and re-supply Once taken on to Puerto Rico
Hawaii Coaling stations- base for trade Pearl Harbor. Sugar cane- King Kalakaua: treaty made sugar cheap import to U.S. – Voting rights only to wealthy landowners Queen Lili-Restore power to Hawaiian monarchy Wealthy landowners and US govt. forced her out. Sanford Dole -President Became territory in 1898 State in formal apology to Hawaiians
Alaska – Bought from Russia in 1867 – 2 cents per acre Puerto Rico – Denied independence White man’s burden Panama Canal – Foraker Act: U.S. put in Governor and members of upper house, denied US citizenship – Eventually given US citizenship
Potential market for American products John Hay- Open door policy – US open access to China’s ports – Maintenance of China’s independence Boxer Rebellion – Boxer: secret society to drive western influence out – Chinese govt. punishing involved 1. growth of US economy depended on exports 2. US had right to intervene to keep markets open 3. fear that closing of an area to American products, citizen or ideas threatened US survival Justify imperialism?
Philippine American War Filipino’s wanted independence Emilio Aguinaldo- constitution and declared independence – Led revolt – camps – 3years, cost US 20 times the price they paid for the islands – Under American rule- to “civilize” – Granted independence on July 4 th, 1946
Treaty of Paris 1898 U.S. and Spain – 1. Cuba independent – 2. Spain would give Puerto Rico and Guam to U.S. – 3. U.S. pay 20 million for annexation of Philippines Is it right? Politically? Morally? Self-serving? Violation of Declaration of Independence? Settle race issues at home before taking on more social problems? Compete for jobs?