Backgrounds/Beginnings Rest. Move. began in America about 1800. Began amidst older churches, not in virgin religious ground.
Religion in Colonial America One thing impressive--great diversity. Esp. true in middle colonies--European “melting pot.” Even dominance of state-supported churches in other areas could not keep dissenters out. – Puritan New England – Anglican South
Rel., Colonial America 2 Anglican Ch. best example of “established church” in both Europe and America. At end of colonial period Anglican Ch. the state-church in all southern colonies. Lost its favored status during Revolution. 1784 Anglican churches in America became the Episcopal Church.
Rel., Colonial America 3 In NE colonies (Mass., Conn. NH) Puritan faith (Congregationalism) established. Close ties between ch & state in NE; for many years dissenters not tolerated. Puritans contributed more to colonial Amer. than any other religious group. Cong. largest denom. at end of colonial era.
Rel., Colonial America 4 Rhode Island founded by dissident Puritan, Roger Williams. – Williams disagreed with Mass. Bay about church-state relations. – Fled Mass. and estab. Rhode Island 1636. – A Bap. for short time; helped found 1st Baptist church in America. RI unique--most rel. freedom in world.
Rel., Colonial America 5 NE Puritans & southern Anglicans forced to tolerate dissenters by 1700. – Diversity. – But not the degree of middle colonies. When British seized New Netherlands in 1664, 14 languages spoken on Long Island.
Rel., Colonial America 6 Penn.--great religious diversity. – Quakers most influential. – William Penn--rel. freedom to all who believed in God. Several persecuted German sects-- Mennonites, Moravians--came. Lutherans too in large numbers.
Rel., Colonial America 7 Major source of Presbyterian strength the Scotch-Irish immigration of 1700s. – Settled frontier areas of Penn, Virginia & the Carolinas. – By 1775 Presby. scattered through all colonies & were 2nd largest denomination. – Thomas & Alexander Campbell part of Scotch-Irish immigration.
Rel., Colonial America 8 5 largest denominations in 1775: – Congregationalists (658) – Presbyterians (543) – Baptists (498) – Anglicans (480) – Quakers (295)
Two Great Awakenings Great Awakening a renewal of rel. interest that swept colonies in 1730s & 1740s. – Rel. fervor waned by 1700. – Decline followed by revival. Awakening 1st among Dutch Reformed in New Jersey ca. 1726. – Soon spread to Presby. – Brought division.
Two Great Awakenings 2 Leading figure in NE phase--Jonathan Edwards. – Northhampton, MA 1734-1740. – “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” George Whitefield--5 trips to America. – Preached Georgia to NE. – Unifying influence in Awakening. Revivals--many converts for Presby., Bap., & Methodists.
Two Great Awakenings 3 G. Awakening quickened interest in rel., but other results. – Encouraged humanitarian & missionary concerns. – Many colleges founded. – Gave diverse colonies a sense of oneness.
Two Great Awakenings 4 Years after Rev. War saw marked decline in religion. – Chs demoralized--less than 10% membership. – Deistic works ridiculed Xtianity--Thomas Paine’s Age of Reason. – Religious apathy followed by another period of renewal--Second Great Awakening.
Two Great Awakenings 5 2nd Awakening reached height Kentucky. – Pres., James McGready, to Logan County, KY 1796. – Spread quickly through KY & TN. – Many others--Pres., Bap., Meth.-- worked together with little regard for denominational differences
Two Great Awakenings 6 Rev. took new forms in the West. – “Sacramental meetings”--Lord’s Supper. – “Camp meeting” born. – Strange, emotional “exercises.” Rev. reached height Aug., 1801 Cane Ridge, KY. – Barton W. Stone. – Result: Stone began search for NT Xtianity.
O’Kelly Movement James O’Kelly (1735-1826) decade earlier than Stone. – Lay Meth. preacher during Rev. War. – Methodist Episcopal Church-- “Christmas Conference” in Baltimore 1784. – O’Kelly present; not happy with episcopal form.
O’Kelly 2 “Church organized of ministers, by ministers, and for ministers, with Rev. Francis Asbury at its head.” Until 1792 “presiding elder” for s. Virginia. Continued to oppose A’s “autocratic rule.” Conflict climaxed at General Conference in 1792--O’Kelly withdrew.
O’Kelly 3 O’K & followers founded “Republican Methodist Church” Dec. 25, 1793. – 1000 members in short time. – 1794 agreed to elders over every church & dropped name “Republican Methodist.” – New name--Rice Haggard suggested “Christian.”
O’Kelly 4 New “Christian Church” 20,000 by 1809. Basic beliefs: – Lordship of Christ--only head of church. – “Christian” to exclusion of all other names. – Bible only creed. Baptism debated in 1810. – O’K not convinced regarding immersion. – Those favoring immersion left.
New England Christians NE chs appeared--similar but independent of O’Kelly movement. Bap. in background; issue was Calvinism. Leaders: Elias Smith & Abner Jones. Smith--all theological systems wrong; be guided only by scripture. Jones (influenced by S.) organized independent “Christian” ch. Lyndon, Vermont, 1801.
NE Christians 2 1807--12 ministers; 14 churches. Smith--Herald of Gospel Liberty 1808. – Communication with O’K movement May 27, 1809. – 1811 Smith attended O’K conference in south. 2 movements became “Christian Connection.” – 1931 Congregational Christian Church. – 1957 United Church of Christ.
The Stone Movement Barton W. Stone (1772-1844). – Son of well-to-do Maryland planter. – Father died; family to Virginia frontier 1779. – Estate divided 1790; S. used his share for education at David Caldwell’s academy in NC. – Academy a one-man college, but good.
Stone 2 Caldwell a Pres. minister and religion dominated academy. James McGready came for revival. – S. convicted of sin. – But Calvinism left him without hope of mercy. Later William Hodge preached. – Stressed love of God. – Stone converted.
Stone 3 S.’s interests toward Pres. ministry. – Trial sermon before presbytery. – “Trinity” difficult, but sermon accepted. Left school for Washington, GA. – Not only doctrine of Trinity. – Misgivings ca. other Pres. theology.
Stone 4 Washington, GA--S. taught in school operated by Methodist, Hope Hull. – Hull at 1792 Methodist Conference. – Voted with O’Kelly, but didn’t leave M. 1796, licensed, to TN and KY--Cane Ridge & Concord. 1798 ordination crisis. – Misgivings. – “I do, as far as I see it consistent with the word of God.”
Cane Ridge Revival 1797 McGready to Logan County, KY. – May, 1797 awakening at Gaspar River. – Beg. of 2nd Great Awakening in west. Joined by William & John McGee as revival spread. Two noteworthy features: – “Exercises” – Participation of different denominations.`
Cane Ridge 2 Stone wrestling with 2 problems: – Calvinistic theology. – Spiritual apathy. Spring 1801 to Logan County. – Baffled by “exercises.” – Conclusion: Somehow the “work of God.”
Cane Ridge 3 Returning to CR S’s preaching produced same results. Spring & summer 1801 spread across the bluegrass. Climax, August 1801, Cane Ridge. – 20,000 to 30,000. – 6 days, day and night. – 100s (1000s?) succumbed to “exercises.”
The Church of Christ at Caneridge & other generous friends in Kentucky have caused this monument to be erected as a tribute of affection & gratitude to BARTON W. STONE Minister of the gospel of Christ and the distinguished reformer of the 19 Century. BORN Dec. 21, 1772 DIED Nov. 9, 1844 His remains lie here. This monument was erected in 1847.
Cane Ridge 4 CR unique in large number of preachers of different denominations who shared work. Preached same thing--free salvation urged upon all by faith and repentance. Opposition among Presbyterians. – Free salvation inconsistent with Calvinism. – Richard McNemar 1st charged with heresy.
Cane Ridge 5 McNemar before Synod of KY 1803. – Charged with being “Arminian.” – 5 revivalists present: Robert Marshall John Dunlavy John Thompson Richard McNemar Barton W. Stone Before Synod could conduct trial, the 5 renounced the Synod.
The Springfield Presbytery Revivalists next organized association. An Apology for Renouncing the Jurisdiction of the Synod of Kentucky. – One section (Stone) argued certain teachings in Westminster Confession of Faith contrary to scripture. – Within 5 months decided was no scriptural authority for the association.
Springfield Presbytery Document dissolving assoc., June 28, 1804. – “Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery” – Serious document, but in satirical style. – “The Presbytery of Springfield, sitting at Cane Ridge, in the county of Bourbon, being, through a gracious Providence, in more than ordinary bodily health, growing in strength and size daily; and in perfect soundness and composure of mind; but knowing that it is
Springfield Presbytery Document dissolving assoc., June 28, 1804. – “Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery” – Serious document, but in satirical style. – appointed for all delegated bodies once to die: and considering that the life of every such body is very uncertain, do make, and ordain this our last Will and Testament, in manner and form following, viz.”
Springfield Presbytery Imprimis. “We will that this body die, be dissolved, and sink into union with the Body of Christ at large; for there is but one Body, and one Spirit, even as we are called in one hope of our calling.”
Springfield Presbytery Item. We will, that our name of distinction, with its Reverend title, be forgotten, that there be but one Lord over God’s heritage, and his name One.
Springfield Presbytery Item. “We will, that our power of making laws for the government of the church, and executing them by delegated authority, forever cease; that the people may have free course to the Bible, and adopt the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus.”
Springfield Presbytery Item. We will, that candidates for the Gospel ministry henceforth study the Holy Scriptures with fervent prayer, and obtain license from God to preach the simple Gospel, with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven, without any mixture of philosophy, vain deceit, traditions of men, or the Rudiments of the world. And let none henceforth take this honor to himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.
Springfield Presbytery Item. We will, that he church of Christ resume her native right of internal government—try her candidates for the ministry, as to their soundness in the faith, acquaintance with experimental religion, gravity and aptness to teach; and admit no other proof of their authority but Christ speaking in them. We will, that the church of Christ look up to the Lord of the harvest to send forth laborers into his harvest; and that she resume her primitive right of trying those who say they are apostles, and are not.
Springfield Presbytery Item. We will, that each particular church, as a body, actuated by the same spirit, choose her own preacher, and support him by a free will offering, without a written call or subscription—admit members— remove offences; and never henceforth delegate her right of government to any man or set of men whatever.
Springfield Presbytery Item. “We will, that the people henceforth take the Bible as the only sure guide to heaven; and as many as are offended with other books, which stand in competition with it, may cast them into the fire if they choose; for it is better to enter into life having one book, than having many to be cast into hell.”
Springfield Presbytery Item. “We will, that preachers and people, cultivate a spirit of mutual forbearance; pray more and dispute less, and while they behold the signs of the times, look up, and confidently expect that redemption draweth nigh.
Springfield Presbytery Item. “We will, that our weak brethren, who may have been wishing to make the Presbytery of Springfield their king, and wot not what is now become of it, betake themselves to the Rock of Ages, and follow Jesus for the future.
Springfield Presbytery Item. “We will, that the Synod of Kentucky examine every member, who may be suspected of having departed from the Confession of Faith, and suspend every such suspected heretic immediately; in order that the oppressed may go free, and taste the sweets of gospel liberty.
Springfield Presbytery Item. “We will, that Ja_______, the author of two letters lately published in Lexington, be encouraged in his zeal to destroy partyism. We will, moreover, that our past conduct be examined into by all who may have correct information; but let foreigners beware of speaking evil of things which they know not.
Springfield Presbytery Item. Finally we will, that all our sister bodies read their Bibles carefully, that they may see their fate there determined, and prepare for death before it is too late.
Springfield Presbytery June 28 th, 1804 Robert Marshall John Dunlavy Richard M’NemarWitnesses B. W. Stone John Thompson David Purviance
Springfield Presbytery 5 Other items in LWT were obvious thrusts at the Presbyterians. – Candidates should “obtain license to preach from God.” – Preach simple gospel without “traditions of men.” – Complete independence of local church. – Right of local church to examine a minister.
Springfield Presbytery 6 No longer Pres., what name to use? – “Christian.” – Rice Haggard--10 years later. “Barton W. Stone, E.C.C.” (Elder in the Church of Christ). Churches called “Christian Churches.” 15 churches by end of 1804 (Ohio-7; KY-8)
Stone--Problems Defections: – To Shakers: Richard McNemar & John Dunlavy and two others. – Practices celibacy & communal life. – Newspaper accounts of “exercises” brought Shakers to KY in 1805. – McNemar Shaker leader for 30 years.
Stone--Problems 2 Baptism and atonement. – 1811 Robert Marshall & John Thompson held to orthodox Pres. views & returned to Pres. – Stone: “I only was left, and they sought my life.” – Baptism discussed from 1807. Immersion soon widely practiced. Stone 1826: “not one in 500 among us...has not been immersed.”
Stone--Growth 1807 24 churches in KY, TN, Ohio, IN. 1808 camp meeting: 47 preachers & large crowds. Many joined from O’Kelly movement. – Rice Haggard. – David Haggard, Clement Nance, James Read, John O’Kane.
Stone--Growth 2 Others came by independent study--John Mulkey. – Baptist from Tompkinsville, KY. – 1809 decided Calvinism unscriptural. – Took stand on Bible alone and invited congregation to join him. Many did. Old Mulkey ch. influential in southern KY.
Hannah Boone Pennington (Sister of Daniel Boone)
Stone--Work Training schools-- – Lexington (1815-1819). – Georgetown (1819-1834). Published journal from 1826--Christian Messenger. By 1832 10,000 members in KY; 5,000? in Ohio; TN, AL, IN, IL, MO. Plea had “spread like fire in dry stubble.”
Christian Messenger Volume I, No. 1 Nov. 25, 1826