Presentation on theme: "Religion and the “Great Awakenings” Puritan Heritage The “Great Awakening” The “Second Great Awakening” Reform Movements."— Presentation transcript:
Religion and the “Great Awakenings” Puritan Heritage The “Great Awakening” The “Second Great Awakening” Reform Movements
John Winthrop- Puritan leader The “elect” had a Calling from God— “do justly, to love mercy, to walk humbly with our God.” “For we must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us.” American “Exceptionalism”
Puritan Ethic “Hard work and material success are sure signs of God’s favor.” Theocracy - Puritans are not tolerant of dissent in New England. “Old Lights”
Puritan Dissent Roger Williams leaves intolerant MBC to found Rhode Island, establishes Baptist church there and calls for improved relations with Indians Anne Hutchinson refuses to submit to church clergy, claims to have direct revelation from God. Banished from MBC, she and most of her family are killed by Indians in the New York area.
Great Awakening 1730-1740 Religious revival –reinvigorates churches “New Lights” direct, emotional spirituality –Jonathan Edwards “Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God” –George Whitefield
Effects of the Great Awakening Further splintering of American churches into new denominations Increased missionary work among slaves and Indians New Lights founded Princeton, Brown, Dartmouth, Rutgers Considered the first mass movement of Americans
Phillis Wheatley He pray'd that grace in ev'ry heart might dwell, He long'd to see America excell; He charg'd its youth that ev'ry grace divine Should with full lustre in their conduct shine... "Take him my dear Americans, he said, "Be your complaints on his kind bosom laid: "Take him, ye Africans, he longs for you, "Impartial Saviour is his title due: "Wash'd in the fountain of redeeming blood, "You shall be sons, and kings, and priests to God." —Phillis Wheatley, "On the Death of Mr. George Whitefield"
2 nd Great Awakening Traveling preachers hold “revival meetings”
2nd Great Awakening Message: Egalitarian –God’s love and redemption are open to everyone. –People could make their own direct connection to God. Many new religious sects Reform movements were established
Religious Sects New branches of Baptists and Methodists Mormans Church of Christ Utopian Communities –Shakers –Oneida –Brook Farm –Amana Colonies –Harmony Society