2Organization: Strategies What is prewriting?Prewriting: the act of organizing your research and planning out your writing piece.Why is it important to organize your information in a writing piece?Easier to writeEasier to read
3Organization Strategies: Comparison/contrast Comparison/contrast: points out similarities and differences in two topicsEgypt’s burial practicesBurial practices of my religion
4Organization Strategies: Cause/effect Cause/effect: shows relationship between events/ideas and their results or consequencesBrakes don’t workBike doesn’t stopAccident occurs
5Organization Strategies: Classification Classification: information is sorted into categoriesFor instance, how a supermarket is arranged: meat, dairy, freezer, produceIn writing, an example would be dividing information into pros and cons.RepublicanMitt RomneyDemocratBarak ObamaGreenJill Stein
6Organization Strategies: Activity Which strategy would be best for an essay on the four types of clouds?Which strategy would be best for an article on the differences between planets and stars?Which strategy would be best for a paper on the process of photosynthesis?Which organization strategy would be best for a biography examining obstacles and successes?
7Informational Task: Perseverance Perseverance can be broken into two categories:ObstaclesSuccessesComplete the pre-writing organizer by categorizing your information into obstacles and successes.ObstacleDetails about obstacle/SuccessDetails about obstacle or successSuccessDetails about success
8Thesis StatementA thesis statement is the main idea of the overall writing piece.The thesis should be stated in the introduction and restated in the conclusion.Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, her own physical limitations, and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller.(The name of your individual) persevered by (obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success from topic #2), (success from topic #3).
9Topic SentencesTopic sentences are the main idea of each paragraph in a writing piece.For your informational writing piece, the topic sentence of each paragraph should relate directly back to the thesis:Anne first displayed her persevering drive by not letting her tragic childhood bring her down. Anne had to be sent to the Perkins School because she also had to overcome childhood blindness.As a result of her belief in learning and education , Anne Sullivan herself became a teacher. However , even this exciting opportunity resulted in difficulties.
10Thesis Statement/Topic Sentences The purpose of the thesis statement and topic sentence is to make it clear to your reader what you are talking about.In your rough draft, highlight (in yellow) your thesis statement and topic sentences.
11Introducing a Topic Introducing a Topic Introducing a Topic Activity Interesting details about the topic to grab the reader’s attention.Thesis statement/main idea about the topicAnne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, blindness, and teaching Helen.Introducing a Topic ActivityAt your table, review the four introduction examples. Write the name of the individual that each paragraph is about and rank them from worst (4) to best (1). Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each, especially on whether they have the two important parts of an introduction.
12Introducing a Topic Activity Babe RuthAnne FrankGloria Estefan
13Introducing a Topic - Example Babe Ruth was and still is considered the best baseball player ever to set foot on a diamond; he set records that were not reached for almost thirty years, including his 714 career homeruns. This amazing baseball career blocked out all the tough times Babe Ruth went through. He overcame a bad childhood, being very poor, and went on to become the best baseball player that ever lived.
14Introducing a Topic - Example Anne Frank was a Jewish teenager who endured the struggled of the Holocaust during World War II. Her father introduced her diary to the world in 1947, and it is now a memorable war document, a symbol of hope, an interesting read, and proof of Anne Frank’s fight to survive.
15Introducing a Topic - Example Gloria Estefan was born on September 1, 1958 in Havana, Cuba. She hasn’t had the best life, but is now a very popular singer. Gloria Estefan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, stage fright, and a broken back.
16Introducing a TopicAt the top of your prewriting organizer, list some interesting details that would get the reader interested in your topic.Using the information you gathered and organized, write a thesis statement that covers each part of your informational writing piece.Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, her own physical limitations, and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller.(The name of your individual) persevered by (obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success from topic #2), (success from topic #3).
17Developing the TopicWays to develop the topic of your informational writing piece:Relevant facts/concrete detailsDefinitionsQuotationsExamplesDeveloping the Topic Activity:Compare and contrast the following model paragraphs. At the bottom, explain how the details, definitions, quotations, and examples develop the topic of Anne Sullivan’s perseverance.
18Developing the TopicAnne first displayed her persevering drive by not letting her tragic childhood bring her down. Her mother and brother died. She lived at an institution. She finally went to school.Anne first displayed her persevering drive by not letting her tragic childhood bring her down. Her father was an abusive alcoholic and her mother died when she was very young. At the age of ten, Anne and her brother were sent to live at an institution, a place that served poor and needy people. Jimmie, Anne's brother, died three months later, leaving Anne alone. At the institution, Anne was forced to live with sexually abused women or people suffering from mental illness. Despite this unending series of depressing events, Anne refused to accept such a sad life. When a state official visited the almshouse, she pleaded with him to let her go to school. He granted her request and sent her to the Perkins School for the Blind.
19Developing the TopicAnne Sullivan became a teacher. Anne was hired as the tutor of Helen Keller, a young girl who was deaf and blind. Helen's inability to interact with the world around her led to wild behavior and a fiery temper. Anne was able to teach Helen to communicate by signing a manual alphabet into her hand.As a result of her belief in learning and education, Anne Sullivan herself became a teacher. However, even this exciting opportunity resulted in difficulties. Anne was hired as the tutor of Helen Keller, a young girl locked in a dark prison of deafness and blindness. Helen's inability to interact with the world around her led to wild behavior and a fiery temper. Anne's initial attempts at teaching Helen failed because of her unruly nature. For example, the first day that they met, Helen slapped Anne and then locked her in a room. In an effort to first teach the girl discipline, Anne and Helen moved to live in a nearby cottage where they could be alone. Even though Helen repeatedly resisted her teacher's attempts, she finally learned to be calm and obedient. Soon after, Anne was also able to teach Helen to communicate by signing a manual alphabet into her hand. Helen was extremely excited to learn and eventually became the first deaf-blind person to get an undergraduate degree from college. Mark Twain, the renowned creator of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn, called Anne Sullivan "the miracle worker".
20Developing the TopicIn the details section of your prewriting organizer, add as many relevant facts, concrete details, definitions, quotations, and examples as you can to develop the topic.Trade prewriting organizers with the person at your table. Check each other’s pieces to see if more details are needed to develop the topic.
21Precise Language Activity Write down the sentence that is more interesting and then explain why:“He walked over to receive his award.”“The 6’4” basketball player strutted across the court to receive the MVP trophy.”Precise language and domain-specific vocabulary helps inform about a topic.
22Precise LanguagePrecise language: words that make a description as clear and sharp as possible“Wild behavior and fiery temper” instead of “bad attitude”“Sling” instead of “throw”Domain-specific vocabulary: words that relate to a certain fieldIf the biography is about a doctor, then there would be medical terms.If the biography is about a baseball player, there would be baseball terms.If the biography is about a scientist, there would be scientific terms.
23Precise LanguageIn your rough draft, highlight in green at least three places where you have used precise language or domain-specific vocabulary. If you cannot find any, revise your paper to include some now.Hint: Right click on words and choose an interesting synonym.Only choose words that you knowReread the sentence to make sure the new word makes sense
24Transitions What are transitions? What is the purpose of transitions? Transitions: words and phrases such as for example, mainly, and in addition that connect ideas in writing.What is the purpose of transitions?Transitions connect ideas and make text easier to understand.
25Transitional Words and Phrases Compare/ Contrastalso, however, on the other hand, although, in the same way, similarly, another, like, too, but, likewise, unlike, moreover, yetCause/Effectas a result, consequently, so, because, since, thereforeTimeabout, finally, often, after, first, second, soon, then, at last, immediately, thereafter, before, later, until, during, meanwhile, when, eventually, next, whilePlaceabove, beneath, into, across, beside, near, among, between, next, around, by, over, before, down, behind, under, belowSupportfor example, for instance, in fact
26Transitions ActivityWhen she was elected principal chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1987, Wilma Mankiller took on a huge job. She was used to challenges, though. For example, she had developed many needed projects for Cherokees in Oklahoma in First, she taught people how to build their own homes. Next, she installed new water supply lines. Finally, she started new rural health clinics. Then, she had to overcome serious injuries she suffered in an auto accident in late While other were impressed with the new chief’s dedication, no one who really knew her well found her leadership ability surprising. Once elected chief, Mankiller continued her work to improve Cherokee communities. She focused on housing and education needs, and she encouraged her people to be proud of their language and culture. After serving two terms as chief, Wilma Mankiller continued to work for the Cherokee Nation by speaking across the country.
27TransitionsIn your rough draft, locate at least five places where you have used transitional words and phrases. If you cannot find five, revise your paper to add additional ones.For each example, use the Comment feature to label and explain the purpose of each transitional word or phrase.
28Formal StyleWhat is the difference between the style of clothes you wear for school and the style of clothes you wear on a night out with your friends or to the beach?Style refers to the writing choices you make, such as which words to use and how to arrange sentences.Academic papers (papers written for schools), should be written in a formal style, meaning they should be professional.
29Formal Style ActivityTranslate the following text slang into language appropriate for formal style:Btw, Nellie was a kewl chick.OMG! Jackie shows skillz.Sosa’s got swag.Review your paper to make sure the style is appropriate for an academic paper.Format your paper according to MLA style.
30Concluding SectionThe concluding section (or conclusion) is the final part of your paper and should do the following:Support the previous informationRestate the thesis/main ideaIdeas for writing the conclusion:Refer back to the introductionGive a final idea or exampleAsk a question or give a comment that will keep readers thinkingGive a final meaning, importance, or purpose for the paper: Why does it matter?
31Concluding Section Example Gloria is considered a superstar in the world of music and has won seven Grammys. She has also received the Ellis Island Congressional Medal of Honor, a great achievement for someone who has become a U.S. citizen. Through her music, she shattered cultural boundaries.
32Concluding Section Example Babe Ruth’s baseball stats hide the fact that his young life was so hard. Babe wanted it this way; he never wanted people to feel sorry for him. He wanted to be judged by his talents and successes. By overcoming childhood poverty and rebellion, he went on to be one of the best baseball players of all time.
33Concluding Section Example Along with many other Jews of her day, Anne Frank experienced horrors that many people today could never imagine. By reading her diary, we can see, feel, and hear only some of the hardships and struggles she faced – moments she continually sought to overcome. Even though she faced both the normal challenges of being a teenager and the unfair hatred of the Nazis, her diary reveals a spirit of perseverance.
34Organization: Formatting HeadingsGraphicsMultimediaUseful in aiding comprehension