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What is prewriting? What is prewriting? Prewriting: the act of organizing your research and planning out your writing piece. Prewriting: the act of organizing.

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Presentation on theme: "What is prewriting? What is prewriting? Prewriting: the act of organizing your research and planning out your writing piece. Prewriting: the act of organizing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is prewriting? What is prewriting? Prewriting: the act of organizing your research and planning out your writing piece. Prewriting: the act of organizing your research and planning out your writing piece. Why is it important to organize your information in a writing piece? Why is it important to organize your information in a writing piece? Easier to write Easier to write Easier to read Easier to read

3 Comparison/contrast: points out similarities and differences in two topics Comparison/contrast: points out similarities and differences in two topics Egypt’s burial practices Burial practices of my religion

4 Cause/effect: shows relationship between events/ideas and their results or consequences Cause/effect: shows relationship between events/ideas and their results or consequences Brakes don’t work Bike doesn’t stop Accident occurs

5 Classification: information is sorted into categories Classification: information is sorted into categories For instance, how a supermarket is arranged: meat, dairy, freezer, produce For instance, how a supermarket is arranged: meat, dairy, freezer, produce In writing, an example would be dividing information into pros and cons. In writing, an example would be dividing information into pros and cons. Republican Mitt Romney Democrat Barak Obama Green Jill Stein

6 Which strategy would be best for an essay on the four types of clouds? Which strategy would be best for an essay on the four types of clouds? Which strategy would be best for an article on the differences between planets and stars? Which strategy would be best for an article on the differences between planets and stars? Which strategy would be best for a paper on the process of photosynthesis? Which strategy would be best for a paper on the process of photosynthesis? Which organization strategy would be best for a biography examining obstacles and successes? Which organization strategy would be best for a biography examining obstacles and successes?

7 Perseverance can be broken into two categories: Perseverance can be broken into two categories: 1.Obstacles 2.Successes Complete the pre-writing organizer by categorizing your information into obstacles and successes. Obstacle Details about obstacle Obstacle /Success Details about obstacle or success Success Details about success

8 A thesis statement is the main idea of the overall writing piece. A thesis statement is the main idea of the overall writing piece. The thesis should be stated in the introduction and restated in the conclusion. The thesis should be stated in the introduction and restated in the conclusion. Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, her own physical limitations, and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller. Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, her own physical limitations, and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller. (The name of your individual) persevered by (obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success from topic #2), (success from topic #3). (The name of your individual) persevered by (obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success from topic #2), (success from topic #3).

9 Topic sentences are the main idea of each paragraph in a writing piece. Topic sentences are the main idea of each paragraph in a writing piece. For your informational writing piece, the topic sentence of each paragraph should relate directly back to the thesis: For your informational writing piece, the topic sentence of each paragraph should relate directly back to the thesis: Anne first displayed her persevering drive by not letting her tragic childhood bring her down. Anne had to be sent to the Perkins School because she also had to overcome childhood blindness. As a result of her belief in learning and education, Anne Sullivan herself became a teacher. However, even this exciting opportunity resulted in difficulties.

10 The purpose of the thesis statement and topic sentence is to make it clear to your reader what you are talking about. The purpose of the thesis statement and topic sentence is to make it clear to your reader what you are talking about. In your rough draft, highlight (in yellow) your thesis statement and topic sentences. In your rough draft, highlight (in yellow) your thesis statement and topic sentences.

11 Introducing a Topic Introducing a Topic Interesting details about the topic to grab the reader’s attention. Interesting details about the topic to grab the reader’s attention. Thesis statement/main idea about the topic Thesis statement/main idea about the topic Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, blindness, and teaching Helen. Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, blindness, and teaching Helen. Introducing a Topic Activity Introducing a Topic Activity At your table, review the four introduction examples. Write the name of the individual that each paragraph is about and rank them from worst (4) to best (1). Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each, especially on whether they have the two important parts of an introduction. At your table, review the four introduction examples. Write the name of the individual that each paragraph is about and rank them from worst (4) to best (1). Explain the strengths and weaknesses of each, especially on whether they have the two important parts of an introduction.

12 Babe Ruth Babe Ruth Anne Frank Anne Frank Gloria Estefan Gloria Estefan

13 Babe Ruth was and still is considered the best baseball player ever to set foot on a diamond; he set records that were not reached for almost thirty years, including his 714 career homeruns. This amazing baseball career blocked out all the tough times Babe Ruth went through. He overcame a bad childhood, being very poor, and went on to become the best baseball player that ever lived.

14 Anne Frank was a Jewish teenager who endured the struggled of the Holocaust during World War II. Her father introduced her diary to the world in 1947, and it is now a memorable war document, a symbol of hope, an interesting read, and proof of Anne Frank’s fight to survive.

15 Gloria Estefan was born on September 1, 1958 in Havana, Cuba. She hasn’t had the best life, but is now a very popular singer. Gloria Estefan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, stage fright, and a broken back.

16 At the top of your prewriting organizer, list some interesting details that would get the reader interested in your topic. At the top of your prewriting organizer, list some interesting details that would get the reader interested in your topic. Using the information you gathered and organized, write a thesis statement that covers each part of your informational writing piece. Using the information you gathered and organized, write a thesis statement that covers each part of your informational writing piece. Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, her own physical limitations, and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller. Anne Sullivan persevered by overcoming her rough childhood, her own physical limitations, and the challenges of teaching Helen Keller. (The name of your individual) persevered by (obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success from topic #2), (success from topic #3). (The name of your individual) persevered by (obstacle from topic #1), (obstacle or success from topic #2), (success from topic #3).

17 Ways to develop the topic of your informational writing piece: Ways to develop the topic of your informational writing piece: Relevant facts/concrete details Relevant facts/concrete details Definitions Definitions Quotations Quotations Examples Examples Developing the Topic Activity: Developing the Topic Activity: Compare and contrast the following model paragraphs. At the bottom, explain how the details, definitions, quotations, and examples develop the topic of Anne Sullivan’s perseverance. Compare and contrast the following model paragraphs. At the bottom, explain how the details, definitions, quotations, and examples develop the topic of Anne Sullivan’s perseverance.

18 Anne first displayed her persevering drive by not letting her tragic childhood bring her down. Her mother and brother died. She lived at an institution. She finally went to school.

19 Anne Sullivan became a teacher. Anne was hired as the tutor of Helen Keller, a young girl who was deaf and blind. Helen's inability to interact with the world around her led to wild behavior and a fiery temper. Anne was able to teach Helen to communicate by signing a manual alphabet into her hand.

20 In the details section of your prewriting organizer, add as many relevant facts, concrete details, definitions, quotations, and examples as you can to develop the topic. In the details section of your prewriting organizer, add as many relevant facts, concrete details, definitions, quotations, and examples as you can to develop the topic. Trade prewriting organizers with the person at your table. Check each other’s pieces to see if more details are needed to develop the topic. Trade prewriting organizers with the person at your table. Check each other’s pieces to see if more details are needed to develop the topic.

21 Write down the sentence that is more interesting and then explain why: Write down the sentence that is more interesting and then explain why: “He walked over to receive his award.” “He walked over to receive his award.” “The 6’4” basketball player strutted across the court to receive the MVP trophy.” “The 6’4” basketball player strutted across the court to receive the MVP trophy.” Precise language and domain-specific vocabulary helps inform about a topic. Precise language and domain-specific vocabulary helps inform about a topic.

22 Precise language: words that make a description as clear and sharp as possible Precise language: words that make a description as clear and sharp as possible “Wild behavior and fiery temper” instead of “bad attitude” “Wild behavior and fiery temper” instead of “bad attitude” “Sling” instead of “throw” “Sling” instead of “throw” Domain-specific vocabulary: words that relate to a certain field Domain-specific vocabulary: words that relate to a certain field If the biography is about a doctor, then there would be medical terms. If the biography is about a doctor, then there would be medical terms. If the biography is about a baseball player, there would be baseball terms. If the biography is about a baseball player, there would be baseball terms. If the biography is about a scientist, there would be scientific terms. If the biography is about a scientist, there would be scientific terms.

23 In your rough draft, highlight in green at least three places where you have used precise language or domain-specific vocabulary. If you cannot find any, revise your paper to include some now. In your rough draft, highlight in green at least three places where you have used precise language or domain-specific vocabulary. If you cannot find any, revise your paper to include some now. Hint: Right click on words and choose an interesting synonym. Hint: Right click on words and choose an interesting synonym. Only choose words that you know Only choose words that you know Reread the sentence to make sure the new word makes sense Reread the sentence to make sure the new word makes sense

24 What are transitions? What are transitions? Transitions: words and phrases such as for example, mainly, and in addition that connect ideas in writing. Transitions: words and phrases such as for example, mainly, and in addition that connect ideas in writing. What is the purpose of transitions? What is the purpose of transitions? Transitions connect ideas and make text easier to understand. Transitions connect ideas and make text easier to understand.

25 Transitional Words and Phrases Compare/ Contrast also, however, on the other hand, although, in the same way, similarly, another, like, too, but, likewise, unlike, moreover, yet Cause/ Effect as a result, consequently, so, because, since, therefore Timeabout, finally, often, after, first, second, soon, then, at last, immediately, thereafter, before, later, until, during, meanwhile, when, eventually, next, while Placeabove, beneath, into, across, beside, near, among, between, next, around, by, over, before, down, behind, under, below Supportfor example, for instance, in fact

26 When she was elected principal chief of the Cherokee Nation in 1987, Wilma Mankiller took on a huge job. She was used to challenges, though. For example, she had developed many needed projects for Cherokees in Oklahoma in First, she taught people how to build their own homes. Next, she installed new water supply lines. Finally, she started new rural health clinics. Then, she had to overcome serious injuries she suffered in an auto accident in late While other were impressed with the new chief’s dedication, no one who really knew her well found her leadership ability surprising. Once elected chief, Mankiller continued her work to improve Cherokee communities. She focused on housing and education needs, and she encouraged her people to be proud of their language and culture. After serving two terms as chief, Wilma Mankiller continued to work for the Cherokee Nation by speaking across the country.

27 In your rough draft, locate at least five places where you have used transitional words and phrases. If you cannot find five, revise your paper to add additional ones. In your rough draft, locate at least five places where you have used transitional words and phrases. If you cannot find five, revise your paper to add additional ones. For each example, use the Comment feature to label and explain the purpose of each transitional word or phrase. For each example, use the Comment feature to label and explain the purpose of each transitional word or phrase.

28 What is the difference between the style of clothes you wear for school and the style of clothes you wear on a night out with your friends or to the beach? What is the difference between the style of clothes you wear for school and the style of clothes you wear on a night out with your friends or to the beach? Style refers to the writing choices you make, such as which words to use and how to arrange sentences. Style refers to the writing choices you make, such as which words to use and how to arrange sentences. Academic papers (papers written for schools), should be written in a formal style, meaning they should be professional. Academic papers (papers written for schools), should be written in a formal style, meaning they should be professional.

29 Translate the following text slang into language appropriate for formal style: Translate the following text slang into language appropriate for formal style: Btw, Nellie was a kewl chick. Btw, Nellie was a kewl chick. OMG! Jackie shows skillz. OMG! Jackie shows skillz. Sosa’s got swag. Sosa’s got swag. Review your paper to make sure the style is appropriate for an academic paper. Review your paper to make sure the style is appropriate for an academic paper. Format your paper according to MLA style. Format your paper according to MLA style.

30 The concluding section (or conclusion) is the final part of your paper and should do the following: The concluding section (or conclusion) is the final part of your paper and should do the following: Support the previous information Support the previous information Restate the thesis/main idea Restate the thesis/main idea Ideas for writing the conclusion: Ideas for writing the conclusion: Refer back to the introduction Refer back to the introduction Give a final idea or example Give a final idea or example Ask a question or give a comment that will keep readers thinking Ask a question or give a comment that will keep readers thinking Give a final meaning, importance, or purpose for the paper: Why does it matter? Give a final meaning, importance, or purpose for the paper: Why does it matter?

31 Gloria is considered a superstar in the world of music and has won seven Grammys. She has also received the Ellis Island Congressional Medal of Honor, a great achievement for someone who has become a U.S. citizen. Through her music, she shattered cultural boundaries.

32 Babe Ruth’s baseball stats hide the fact that his young life was so hard. Babe wanted it this way; he never wanted people to feel sorry for him. He wanted to be judged by his talents and successes. By overcoming childhood poverty and rebellion, he went on to be one of the best baseball players of all time.

33 Along with many other Jews of her day, Anne Frank experienced horrors that many people today could never imagine. By reading her diary, we can see, feel, and hear only some of the hardships and struggles she faced – moments she continually sought to overcome. Even though she faced both the normal challenges of being a teenager and the unfair hatred of the Nazis, her diary reveals a spirit of perseverance.

34 Headings Headings Graphics Graphics Multimedia Multimedia Useful in aiding comprehension Useful in aiding comprehension


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