2What is Foodborne Illness? Foodborne Illness= sickness that results from eating food that is not safe to eat.Can range from mild to very serious- even fatal!Safe food practices are extremely IMPORTANT!
3Meet the Microorganisms Microorganisms= tiny living creatures that can be seen only with a microscope.They are the cause of MOST cases of Foodborne Illness.Include different types of bacteria, parasites, and viruses.Not all Microorganisms are harmful. Some are used to make foods such as yogurt, vinegar, and some cheeses.
4How is Food Contaminated? You can’t see, smell, or taste microorganisms.They can get into your food at anytime during the preparation, serving, or storage.With the right conditions microorganisms can multiply to dangerous levels.To survive bacteria needs:FoodMoistureRight Temperatures
5Danger ZoneThe temperature range in which bacteria grow fastest. Between 40 and 140°F. At room temperature bacteria can double their numbers every 30 Minutes!
6When Foodborne Illness Strikes! What are the Symptoms? Symptoms vary and many of them are similar to those of other illnesses such as the flu.Normally, symptoms occur within 4 to 48 hours.Can occur as early as 30 minutes and as late as 2 weeks after eating harmful bacteria.
7Most Common Foodborne Illnesses Possible SourcesSymptomsTimingE. ColiRaw or undercooked meatUnwashed produceSevere abdominal painDiarrhea-often bloody,Vomiting2 to 5 days after eating contaminated food. Lasts about 8 days.BotulismCanned foods that aren’t processed or stored properly.Double visionDifficulty speakingSwallowing and breathingCan be fatal if not treated immediately and properly.Can appear 4 to 8 days after eating food. May last years!SalmonellaRaw and undercooked eggs, poultry, meat, fishNausea & VomitingAbdominal painDiarrheaFeverHeadache.Begin 6 to 48 hours after eating food. May last 1-2 days.Staphylococcal Food PoisoningPrepared foods left too long at room temperature.ExhaustionHeadache & Muscle Pain30 minutes to 8 hours after eating. Lasts about 2 days.Most Common Foodborne Illnesses
8When Foodborne Illness Strikes! Who is at Risk? Anyone can suffer from foodborne illness.Those with weaker immune systems area at greater risk of becoming sick after eating contaminated foods. This includes:InfantsYoung childrenPregnant womenOlder people
9When Foodborne Illness Strikes! What Should You Do? Rest and drink plenty of fluids. Call your doctor immediately if you have:Bloody diarrheaFrequent diarrhea and vomitingStiff neck and severe headacheDizziness or blurred visionHigh or persistent fever.
10When Foodborne Illness Strikes! What Should You Do? If a portion of the food is still available, wrap is securely, label it “DANGER” and refrigerate it. If it was packaged save the can, carton, or packaging materials.Call your local health department to report the incident if the subject food was…From a restaurant or other food services facilityA packaged food sold at stores orEaten at a large gathering such as wedding reception, or a church or community event.
11Preventing Foodborne Illness You can fight bacteria and other microorganisms that cause foodborne illness by:Taking steps to keep harmful microorganisms from getting to food or spreading from one food to another.Not giving bacteria the time and conditions they need to multiply.Destroying harmful bacteria through proper cooking.
12ReviewT or F Raw eggs, poultry, meat, and fish are often contaminated with harmful bacteria?For what groups of people do foodborne illnesses pose the greatest risk?What is the temperature range in which bacteria grows rapidly?
13Review AnswersTrueInfants, pregnant women, older adults, and people with impaired immune systemsBetween 40°F - 140°F
15Food Safety When You Shop Look at the dates on packages that tell you about a food’s freshness.Choose canned goods that are free of dents, bulges, rust, or leaks.Place raw meat, poultry, and fish in plastic bags to keep their juices from dripping on other foods in the cart.Make sure food packages don’t have holes, tears, open corners, or broken safety seals.
16Food Safety When You Shop (cont’d) Check that refrigerated foods feel cold and frozen foods feel solid. Avoid frozen foods with ice crystals or discoloration they may have been thawed, and refrozen.Plan your shopping so that you select refrigerated foods , frozen foods, and hot items from the deli last. That way they’re at room temperature for a short time.After you shop take the food home right away and store it properly. If it will take longer than 30 minutes to get home, bring an insulated cooler for perishable foods.
17Storing FoodTo keep foods safe and fresh at home, you must know how to store it!There are 3 basic food storage areas:Dry StorageRefrigerator StorageFreezer Storage
18Dry Storage What it Means: A cabinet or other area that’s clean, dry, dark, and cool (below 85°F).Don’t store foods under the sink or in cabinets next to heat-producing appliances (including the refrigerator).Don’t store household cleaning products or trash in the same cabinet as food.
19Dry Storage What to Store Here: Canned Goods Cereals Crackers Pasta Dry BeansBaking MixesVegetable OilPeanut Butter*Make sure to check the label for foods that need to be refrigerated after opening.
20Dry Storage Storage Tips: Rotate canned and packaged goods by putting new purchases in the back behind older ones.This will help you remember to use the older items first.
21Refrigerator Storage Proper Temperatures: What to Store Here: Between 32 and 40°F.Use a refrigerator thermometer to check.What to Store Here:Perishables such as: meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, eggs, fresh fruits and vegetables, and leftovers.Check package labels for foods that need refrigeration after opening.
22Refrigerator StorageStorage Tips:To keep foods from drying out, use foil, plastic wrap, plastic bags or airtight containers. This will also keep odors from transferring to other foods.Leave space between foods to allow room for cold air to circulate.Wipe up spills immediately and remove spoiled foods.Use door shelves for foods that aren’t highly perishable, such as condiments. Interior doors and shelves stay colder than door shelves.
23Freezer Storage Proper Temperatures: What to Store Here: 0°F or less. Check with a freezer thermometer.What to Store Here:Food purchased frozen, as well as foods that can be frozen for longer storage. This includes: meat, poultry, fish, breads, and home-prepared foods such as casseroles.
24Freezer Storage Storage Tips: Store foods purchased frozen in their original packages.Wrap other foods properly to avoid freezer burn- changes in color, flavor, and texture that result when food loses moisture in the freezer.Food with freezer burn has areas that look white and dried up. It Isn’t harmful, but it’s not appealing either.Use freezer paper, heavy-duty foil, plastic freezer bags, and airtight containers.Label foods you freeze yourself with the name of the food, date frozen, and number of servings.Rotate foods as you store them, putting oldest foods toward the front.
25When Food Spoils… Never taste foods that you suspect are spoiled. Some foods will:Loose nutrientsGo staleWiltGrow microorganisms
26Discard Without Tasting… Canned goods that leak, bulge, have a foul odor, or are badly dented.Jars that are cracked or have loose or bulging lids.Any container that spurts liquid when you open it.Food that is slimy, mushy, discolored, or just doesn’t look or smell right.Moldy foods- in most case (see next slide).Leftovers that have been in the refrigerator more than 4 days- and the mystery foods that are “who-knows-how-old!”Any food your not sure of- When in doubt throw it out!
27Dealing With Mold…On hard cheeses- such as cheddar- you can safely cut away small areas of mold. Cut at least 1 inch around the moldy area. Put the remaining cheese in a fresh wrapper or container.Discard all other foods that are moldy.Mold gives off invisible spores- that’s how it spreads. Wrap moldy food well before you throw it out. Check other foods for mold too. Clean the container and refrigerator well.
29Keeping Things CleanFrom the supermarket to your table, one way to prevent foodborne illness is by following rule of sanitation.Sanitation: preventing illness through cleanliness.Keeping yourself and the kitchen clean helps get rid of some microorganisms.
30Personal Cleanliness YOU can be a source for bacteria. Wash Your Hands!Wash vigorously with warm water & soap.Wash front and back, in between fingers, under fingernails.Wash for at least 20 seconds!
31Personal Cleanliness When do you need to wash your hands? Before you begin preparing foods.After handling raw foods.Between handling different kinds of food.After using the toilet or changing a diaper.After touching petsAfter touching your mouth, nose, hair, or other parts of your body while preparing food.
32More Ways to Keep CleanDon’t handle food if you have diarrhea, a fever, or other symptoms of illness.Before you begin to prepare food, tie back long hair.Wear clean clothing. An apron will help protect you against spills and spatters.Cover any cuts or sores on your hands with a clean waterproof bandage- or wear clean plastic rubber kitchen gloves.Wash gloved hands as often as bare hands.Don’t sneeze or cough over food.
33The Clean RoutineClean kitchen surfaces and appliances- inside and out- on a regular basis. Use hot soapy water, a disinfectant cleaner, or a mixture of bleach and water.Keep the kitchen clean as you work, wiping up spills right away.Consider using paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces. If you use cloth towels or sponges, rinse them well between uses. Wash them often in the hot cycle of the washing machine.
34The Clean Routine (cont’d) Always use clean utensils and dishes.Keep dirty dishes away from food preparation areas.Wash dishes promptly.Wipe the tops of canned foods before opening them.Clean the blade of the can opener after each use.
35Avoiding Cross-Contamination Cross-Contamination: occurs when harmful bacteria are transferred from one food to another.Keep raw meat, poultry, fish, and their juices away from ready-to-eat foods in your shopping cart, grocery bags, refrigerator, and while preparing foods.Use one cutting board for meat, poultry, and fish and another for other foods.Use plastic or other non-porous cutting boards.
36Avoiding Cross-Contamination Make sure cutting boards are free from cracks and crevices- these are perfect hiding places for bacteria.Wash everything that comes in contact with raw meat, poultry, and fish in hot soapy water immediately. This includes utensils, cutting boards, dishes, the counter, and your hands.Never place cooked or ready-to-eat foods on an unwashed plate or cutting board that previously held raw products.
38Thawing Foods Safely Some frozen foods require thawing before cooking. If these foods are allowed to thaw at room temperature, the outer surface may reach the danger zone.Bacteria on the surface can grow while the center of the food is still thawing.Methods for thawing frozen foods include:In the refrigeratorIn cold waterIn the microwave oven
39Thawing in the Refrigerator Place frozen foods on the lowest shelf in a plastic bag to collect any juices.This takes planning- many frozen foods take a full day or longer to thaw in the refrigerator.
40Thawing in Cold WaterFaster than refrigerator thawing, but requires more attention.Place the frozen item in a sink or large bowl filled with cold water.Be sure the food is wrapped in a leak-proof package or plastic bag.Change the water frequently to make sure it stays cold.
41Thawing in the Microwave Oven Place frozen item in a microwave-safe container and defrost on the “low” or “defrost” setting. Check your owners manual for specific instructions.Cook food right away- some areas of the food may begin to cook during microwave thawing and it’s not safe to cook food only partially.
42Cooking Food Thoroughly Foods are properly cooked when they are heated for a long enough time and at a high enough temperature to destroy harmful bacteria.Always cook food thoroughly, and finish cooking once you start.Don’t try to roast your turkey for ½ the cooking time today and the rest tomorrow- that won’t do the job.
43Cooking Food Thoroughly The best way to determine if food is cooked thoroughly is by measuring the internal temperature with a clean meat thermometer.Color and texture changes are not always reliable signs.
44Safe Internal Temperature When Is It Done?°F°CFresh Beef, Veal, Lamb, and PorkGround ProductsOther Cuts:MediumWell-Done1601707177PoultryBreasts, Thighs, RoastsWhole Chicken or TurkeyStuffing (cooked alone or in bird)1801658274Fish14563EggsEgg DishesHamPrecooked (to reheat)Not Precooked14060Leftovers (reheating)Boil sauces, soups, and gravies for at least 1 minutes before eating.When microwaving, cover leftovers, stir, and rotate during heating.
46Basic Kitchen Safety Rules For General Safety:Don’t let hair, jewelry, sleeves, or apron strings dangle. They could catch fire or get tangled in appliances.Pay attention to the task you’re doing.Use the right tool for the job.
47Basic Kitchen Safety Rules To Prevent Cuts:Store knives in a knife block, rack, or special drawer divider.Don’t soak knives or other sharp utensils in a sink where you cannot see them.Use a cutting board- don’t hold food in your hand to cut.Clean up broken glass carefully. Use a broom and dustpan or a wet paper towel.
48Basic Kitchen Safety Rules To prevent bruises, falls, and back injuries:Close drawers and cabinet doors after you open them.Wipe up spills, spatters, and peelings on the floor immediately.Use a sturdy stepstool to reach higher shelves.Store heavy items within easy reach. Lift them with care.
49Basic Kitchen Safety Rules To prevent electrical shock:Keep small electrical appliances away from water. Don’t use them when your hands are wet.Keep electrical chords away from the range and other heat sources.Unplug small appliances before cleaning them. Don’t put any electrical appliances in water unless it reads “immersible.”NEVER insert a fork or other metal objects into a toaster or other electrical appliance.Don’t plug too many appliances into one outlet.
50Basic Kitchen Safety Rules To Prevent Burns:Keep pot holders and oven mitts within easy reach. Use them whenever you handle hot items. Make sure they are dry.Turn the handles of pots and pans toward the inside of the range to prevent accidental spills.When lifting the cover of a hot pan, tilt it so the steam flows out the back, away from you.If you spill something on a hot appliance, wait until it cools before wiping up the spill.
51Basic Kitchen Safety Rules To Prevent Fires:Keep flammable items, such as paper towels and food packages, away from the range.Watch foods while they’re cooking on the range.Store aerosol cans away from heat.Keep a fire extinguisher handy. Make sure you know how to use it.
52Basic Kitchen Safety Rules To Prevent Poisoning:Store household chemicals away from food and out of children's reach. Keep the chemical in a locked cabinet if possible. Be sure containers are clearly labeled.Follow label directions when you use household chemicals. Never mix 2 chemicals together.
53Preparing for Kitchen Emergencies To Prepare Yourself for Emergencies:Keep a list of emergency telephone numbers near each phone. Include the number of the nearest poison control center.Keep a first aid kit and book of instructions handy.Learn life-saving techniques. Such as the Heimlich Maneuver- a frist aid technique for choking and CPR- first aid to use when someone’s breathing and heartbeat have stopped.
54Preparing for Kitchen Emergencies In an Emergency:Stay calm so you can think clearly and respond quickly.Call for help if you need to.In case of poisoning, immediately call the nearest poision control center. Be ready to report the kind of poison, amount swallowed, when it was swallowed, and any symptoms. Follow the instructions you are given.
55Putting Out A Kitchen Fire For a fire on the range top or in an electric skillet:Turn off the heat.Put the cover on the pan- or pour salt or baking soda on the flames.For a fire in the oven, broiler, microwave, or toaster oven:Turn off or disconnect the appliance.Keep the appliance door closed. The fire will go out once it runs out of oxygen. Make sure nothing else around it can catch fire.