4Spoilage and Nutrient Loss When food is not stored properly, it begins to lose quality and nutrients.Under the right conditions, harmful bacteria, yeasts, and molds can spoil food.There are also environmental conditions that speed up nutrient loss.
5Environmental Conditions Heat – speeds up the chemical reactions that cause food to spoilAir – exposure to oxygen destroys some nutrientsMoisture – Too little moisture causes food to dry out while too much moisture provides a breeding ground for bacteria and moldLight – destroys some nutrientsDirt – contains harmful microorganismsDamage to food or packaging – be alert to damage
6When food is spoiledHow do you know when a food is spoiled? It can wilt, get wrinkled, turn brown, get slimy, develop spots, become fuzzy, develop holes and tears, become bruised, develop bad flavors, mold, and develop bad odors.Food that is spoiled should be discarded.Things that are moldy require special handling because the mold gives off spores which can easily spread.Never taste a food to see if it is spoiled.
7Basic Storage Principles No food can be stored forever.Each food has a shelf life.This is the length of time it can be stored and still retain its quality.
8Basic Storage Principles To avoid the loss of stored food:Buy only what you needFollow the rule of first in, first outLook for sell by and use by datesClean storage areas regularlyStore leftovers immediately
9Room Temperature Storage Many canned foods are shelf-stable. This means they are able to last for weeks and months at room temperature below 85 degrees.Kitchen cabinets used for most room temperature storage should be clean and dry with doors to keep out the light and dirt.Do not store food on shelves above heat or water sources .
10Cold StoragePerishable foods spoil quickly at room temperature. Examples of perishable foods include dairy, meats, and cooked foods.Perishable foods require cold storage.
11Refrigerator StorageFoods that are normally refrigerated include: a. Foods that were refrigerated in the store b. Most fruits and vegetables, except for onions, potatoes, and sweet potatoes which should be stored in the pantry. c. Whole grain bread products d. Leftover cooked foods e. Baked goods with fruit or cream fillings f. Foods labeled with refrigerate after opening. g. Store highly perishable foods for only a few days in the refrigerator.
12Refrigerator Guidelines Avoid overloading the refrigeratorTightly cover the foodDo not store food in opened cansKeep meats in store wrap and place in a plastic bagDo not wash fruits and vegetables before you store them. You should also not store them in plastic bags.Place leftovers in shallow containersCut large pieces of meat into smaller pieces so they cool quickly.
13Refrigerator Guidelines Do not let the refrigerator temperature fall to freezing.Store leftovers immediately.Never line your refrigerator shelves with foilEggs should not be stored in the door of the refrigerator.Your refrigerator should be set to 40 degrees.
14Freezer StorageFreezing allows long term storage of many foods. Do not freeze eggs, products made with mayonnaise, meat and poultry stuffing, cream or egg based sauces, custards, baked goods with cream fillings, and many cheeses.Your freezer should be set to 0 degrees.Foods purchased frozen should be stored promptly.Do not freeze vegetables that you plan to eat raw.Do not cook foods frozen.A safe place to thaw foods is in the refrigerator.
15Freezer Storage Packaging Always use freezer weight paper, plastic, and foil for freezing foods. Freezer weight is both vapor and moisture resistant.Plastic containers should have tight fitting lids.Using appropriate freezer materials will prevent freezer burn.Freezer burn is a condition that results when food is improperly packaged or stored in the freezer too long.Foods that are purchased frozen can be stored in their original packaging.
16Freezer GuidelinesAlways check the appearance and odor of all thawed foods.When freezing foods, squeeze out as much air as possible to prevent freezer burn.Leave a one inch head space at the top for the food to expand as it freezes.Keep a freezer inventory which is a list of food kept in the freezer.
17Power OutagesWhen the power goes out, do not open the freezer or refrigerator door.A full freezer will keep food frozen for two days. A half full freezer will keep for one day.If the power will be off for longer than two days, carefully put in dry ice.
18Power Outages in the Freezer When the power returns to the freezer, use these guidelines to determine what to do:If ice crystals are still visible refreezeDiscard any food that was held above 40 degrees for more than two hoursDiscard food that has a strange odorOnce the power returns, wash up any food spills and wipe surfaces dry.
19Power outages in the Refrigerator When the power returns to the refrigerator, use these guidelines:Foods will usually keep for 4-6 hoursDiscard fresh meats, dairy, and cooked foods held above 40 for more than 2 hoursKeep butter if it has not melted or smells rancidOther food like fruits are fine if they have no odor, mold, or sliminess
20Food Safety, Sanitation, and Storage APT: Meals in Minutes - Food Safety and Sanitation (18)