Heat rash Sunburn Heat cramps Heat exhaustion Heat stroke Heat Illnesses (“Hyperthermia”) Severity American Meteorological Society Central North Carolina Chapter April 21, 2005
First Aid: Practice good personal hygiene; keep the skin clean and the pores unclogged, allow skin to dry, wear loose clothing. Heat Rash (prickly heat) Symptoms: Skin becomes reddened and may itch, feel prickly or hurt.
First Aid: Move into shade or cover minor burns with light cloth, frequent sips of water, cool skin by sponging with water, apply after-sun. Sunburn Symptoms: Skin becomes reddened, pain, blistering in severe cases.
Symptoms: Cramping of either active muscles (arms, legs) or involuntary (usually abdominal) muscles (or both). First Aid: Replenish electrolytes through drinking of fluids such as sports drinks etc. Rest in a cool environment. Heat Cramps:
Symptoms: Nausea, dizziness, weakness headache, blurred vision, profuse sweating, cold/wet (clammy) grayish skin, unconsciousness, coma and death. First Aid: Lie down in a cool location, administer fluids if conscious. If unconscious, seek medical care. Heat Exhaustion:
Symptoms: Chills, restlessness, irritability, euphoria, red face and skin, disorientation, hot/dry skin (not always), collapse, unconsciousness, convulsions and death. First Aid: Immediate, aggressive cooling of the victim’s body using wet cloths, immersion into cold water or alcohol wipes. Contact emergency services ASAP! Heat Stroke:
Remove clothing layers Stop & rest Drink little & often to avoid dehydration Move into shade Sun-hat and or sun-screen
Dehydration fluid losstime*effect & symptoms (* timing may vary based on intensity of exercise and heat/humidity) 0.75 L1 hr unnoticed (at 1.5% weight loss you are considered dehydrated) 1.5 L2-3 hrs loss of endurance, start to feel thirsty, feel hot, uncomfortable 2.25 L3-4 hrs loss of strength, loss of energy, moderate discomfort 3 L4-5 hrs cramps, headaches, extreme discomfort 3.5-4 L5-6 hrs heat exhaustion, nausea, faint 5+ L7+ hrs heat stroke, collapse, unconsciousness taken from: OH&S Canada Volume 69, Number 5, page 52, May 2000
What to drink: Water is the best; juices are also good (juices contain energy restoring glucose). Electrolyte (sports) drinks (e.g. Powerade) are usually not needed (but can be used for first aid for cramps). Stay away from caffeinated carbonated, diet drinks and alcohol as they take water out of your body.
How Much Water is Enough? More than you want just to satisfy your thirst Sources of water are: 1. Fluids – ½ pint = 250 mL every 30-60 min 2. Foods - fruit & veggies are 90% water Not too cold
You can and should replace essential elements lost during sweating; Eat a balanced diet rather than taking salt tablets or drinking expensive sports drinks. Eat Healthily
Watch out for each other! Someone heading into a heat stroke will no longer realise what is happening to him/her It is vital that group members be able to recognise what is happening and intervene Without quick attention, the person may die!