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Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration

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Presentation on theme: "Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration"— Presentation transcript:

1 Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration
Energy and Life Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration

2 Autotrophic Organisms
Use light energy to make their own food Provide ULTIMATE SOURCE OF ENERGY for all living things All plants, some Protists, some bacteria

3 Heterotrophic Organisms
CANNOT use light energy to make food Obtain food energy by CONSUMING their food Animals, fungi, protists

4 ATP and ADP: Chemical energy for cells
Adenosine TriPhosphate How many phosphates in ATP? 3; “Tri” means 3! Main source of cell’s energy “Fully charged” battery Energy stored in BONDS btw. phosphates

5 ATP and ADP: Chemical energy for cells
Adenosine DiPhosphate How many phosphates in ADP? 2; “Di” means 2! ADP becomes ATP by adding a P “Half-charged” battery

6 ATP Cycle
Energy released from ATP when it loses a phosphate (use the battery) ATP ADP + ENERGY Energy (FROM BREAKING DOWN GLUCOSE) is used to add a phosphate to make ATP from ADP (charge the battery) ADP ATP LOSE A PHOSPHATE ENERGY + PHOSPHATE

7 Photosynthesis: The basics
Using light (photo) to make (synthesis) glucose Occurs in autotrophs In which organelle? Chloroplasts Pigment: Substance that has the ability to absorb light waves What pigment is involved in photosynthesis? Chlorophyll

8 Photosynthesis: Chlorophyll
Sun emits energy in different wavelengths The shorter the wavelength, the more energy it has According to chart, which wavelength is shortest? VIOLET! Chlorophyll ABSORBS violet, and REFLECTS green!

9 Photosynthesis: The Reaction
What reactants are needed for photosynthesis to occur? Water, CO2, sunlight energy What are the products of photosynthesis? Glucose and O2 The Formula: H2O + CO C6H12O6 + O2 (WATER) + (CARBON DIOXIDE)  (GLUCOSE) + (OXYGEN) LIGHT ENERGY

10 Photosynthesis: Guard Cells
Guard cells are located on the bottom of leaves Guard cells regulate gases and water moving in and out of the leaf When guard cells are open: Carbon dioxide can move in freely Oxygen can move out freely Water can exit the leaf, without the leaf drying up During humid conditions When guard cells are closed: Photosynthesis rates slow down Water is kept in the leaf, to prevent water loss During dry conditions

11 Draw the Guard cells below:

12 Photosynthesis: The Song
Sung to “Brother John” Carbon Dioxide (Carbon Dioxide) Add water and light (Add water and light) Then we photosynthesize (Then we photosynthesize) Glucose and oxygen (Glucose and oxygen)

13 Cellular Respiration: The basics
Breaking down glucose to make ATP Occurs in autotrophs AND heterotrophs (all living things need to make ATP!) In which organelle? Mitochondria! Occurs in different pathways Depends on presence of Oxygen

14 Cellular Respiration: Aerobic
Occurs in mitochondria in the presence of oxygen What are the reactants? Glucose (C6H12O6) and Oxygen (O2) The process: Starts with ADP already in cells Energy released from glucose attaches a phosphate to make ATP! What are the end products? 32 ATP (energy), CO2, H2O

15 Cellular Respiration: The Reaction

16 Cellular Respiration: The Song
Sung to “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” Res-Res-Respiration Uses Oxygen To breakdown Glucose to make ATP And Carbon Dioxide

17 Cellular Respiration: Anaerobic
What if there is a lack of oxygen? Can you think of times when you aren’t getting enough oxygen? During exercise! Occurs in cytoplasm instead of mitochondria GLUCOSE  2 PYRUVIC ACID  2 LACTIC ACID Called FERMENTATION Animals = Produce Lactic Acid Plants = Produce Alcohol Results in much less energy produced!

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