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Energy and Life Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy and Life Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Energy and Life Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs ATP Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration

3 Autotrophic Organisms Use light energy to make their own foodUse light energy to make their own food Provide ULTIMATE SOURCE OF ENERGY for all living thingsProvide ULTIMATE SOURCE OF ENERGY for all living things All plants, some Protists, some bacteriaAll plants, some Protists, some bacteria

4 Heterotrophic Organisms CANNOT use light energy to make foodCANNOT use light energy to make food Obtain food energy by CONSUMING their foodObtain food energy by CONSUMING their food Animals, fungi, protistsAnimals, fungi, protists

5 ATP and ADP: Chemical energy for cells ATP:ATP: Adenosine TriPhosphateAdenosine TriPhosphate How many phosphates in ATP?How many phosphates in ATP? 3; “Tri” means 3!3; “Tri” means 3! Main source of cell’s energyMain source of cell’s energy “Fully charged” battery“Fully charged” battery Energy stored in BONDS btw. phosphatesEnergy stored in BONDS btw. phosphates

6 ATP and ADP: Chemical energy for cells ADP:ADP: Adenosine DiPhosphateAdenosine DiPhosphate How many phosphates in ADP?How many phosphates in ADP? 2; “Di” means 2!2; “Di” means 2! ADP becomes ATP by adding a PADP becomes ATP by adding a P “Half-charged” battery“Half-charged” battery

7 ATP Cycle Energy released from ATP when it loses a phosphate (use the battery)Energy released from ATP when it loses a phosphate (use the battery) ATP ADP + ENERGY ATP ADP + ENERGY Energy (FROM BREAKING DOWN GLUCOSE) is used to add a phosphate to make ATP from ADP (charge the battery)Energy (FROM BREAKING DOWN GLUCOSE) is used to add a phosphate to make ATP from ADP (charge the battery) ADP ATP LOSE A PHOSPHATE ENERGY + PHOSPHATE

8 Photosynthesis: The basics Using light (photo) to make (synthesis) glucoseUsing light (photo) to make (synthesis) glucose Occurs in autotrophsOccurs in autotrophs In which organelle?In which organelle? ChloroplastsChloroplasts Pigment:Pigment: Substance that has the ability to absorb light wavesSubstance that has the ability to absorb light waves What pigment is involved in photosynthesis?What pigment is involved in photosynthesis? ChlorophyllChlorophyll

9 Photosynthesis: Chlorophyll Sun emits energy in different wavelengthsSun emits energy in different wavelengths The shorter the wavelength, the more energy it hasThe shorter the wavelength, the more energy it has According to chart, which wavelength is shortest?According to chart, which wavelength is shortest? VIOLET!VIOLET! Chlorophyll ABSORBS violet, and REFLECTS green!Chlorophyll ABSORBS violet, and REFLECTS green!

10 Photosynthesis: The Reaction What reactants are needed for photosynthesis to occur?What reactants are needed for photosynthesis to occur? Water, CO 2, sunlight energyWater, CO 2, sunlight energy What are the products of photosynthesis?What are the products of photosynthesis? Glucose and O 2Glucose and O 2 The Formula:The Formula: H 2 O + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 (WATER) + (CARBON DIOXIDE)  (GLUCOSE) + (OXYGEN) LIGHT ENERGY

11 Photosynthesis: Guard Cells Guard cells are located on the bottom of leavesGuard cells are located on the bottom of leaves Guard cells regulate gases and water moving in and out of the leafGuard cells regulate gases and water moving in and out of the leaf When guard cells are open:When guard cells are open: Carbon dioxide can move in freelyCarbon dioxide can move in freely Oxygen can move out freelyOxygen can move out freely Water can exit the leaf, without the leaf drying upWater can exit the leaf, without the leaf drying up During humid conditionsDuring humid conditions When guard cells are closed:When guard cells are closed: Photosynthesis rates slow downPhotosynthesis rates slow down Water is kept in the leaf, to prevent water lossWater is kept in the leaf, to prevent water loss During dry conditionsDuring dry conditions

12 Draw the Guard cells below:

13 Photosynthesis: The Song Sung to “Brother John” Carbon Dioxide (Carbon Dioxide) Add water and light (Add water and light) Then we photosynthesize (Then we photosynthesize) Glucose and oxygen (Glucose and oxygen)

14 Cellular Respiration: The basics Breaking down glucose to make ATPBreaking down glucose to make ATP Occurs in autotrophs AND heterotrophs (all living things need to make ATP!)Occurs in autotrophs AND heterotrophs (all living things need to make ATP!) In which organelle?In which organelle? Mitochondria!Mitochondria! Occurs in different pathwaysOccurs in different pathways Depends on presence of OxygenDepends on presence of Oxygen

15 Cellular Respiration: Aerobic Occurs in mitochondria in the presence of oxygenOccurs in mitochondria in the presence of oxygen What are the reactants?What are the reactants? Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and Oxygen (O 2 )Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and Oxygen (O 2 ) The process:The process: Starts with ADP already in cellsStarts with ADP already in cells Energy released from glucose attaches a phosphate to make ATP!Energy released from glucose attaches a phosphate to make ATP! What are the end products?What are the end products? 32 ATP (energy), CO 2, H 2 O32 ATP (energy), CO 2, H 2 O

16 Cellular Respiration: The Reaction C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 ATP + CO 2 + H 2 O (GLUCOSE) + (OXYGEN)  (ENERGY) + (CARBON DIOXIDE) + (WATER)

17 Cellular Respiration: The Song Sung to “Row, Row, Row Your Boat” Res-Res-Respiration Uses Oxygen To breakdown Glucose to make ATP And Carbon Dioxide

18 Cellular Respiration: Anaerobic What if there is a lack of oxygen?What if there is a lack of oxygen? Can you think of times when you aren’t getting enough oxygen?Can you think of times when you aren’t getting enough oxygen? During exercise!During exercise! Occurs in cytoplasm instead of mitochondriaOccurs in cytoplasm instead of mitochondria GLUCOSE  2 PYRUVIC ACID  2 LACTIC ACID Called FERMENTATIONCalled FERMENTATION Animals = Produce Lactic AcidAnimals = Produce Lactic Acid Plants = Produce AlcoholPlants = Produce Alcohol Results in much less energy produced!Results in much less energy produced!


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