Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Politics in Mao’s Era. Birth of “New China” Civil War in 1949 January, Beijing/Tianjin fell to CCP April, Nanking fell to CCP May, Shanghai fell to CCP.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Politics in Mao’s Era. Birth of “New China” Civil War in 1949 January, Beijing/Tianjin fell to CCP April, Nanking fell to CCP May, Shanghai fell to CCP."— Presentation transcript:

1 Politics in Mao’s Era

2 Birth of “New China” Civil War in 1949 January, Beijing/Tianjin fell to CCP April, Nanking fell to CCP May, Shanghai fell to CCP Founding of the “People’s Republic” Sept. Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) Common Program Beijing – capital of the new state Five-star flag

3 The Common Program PRC’s proto-constitution PRC a people’s democracy People in PRC are the following Workers Peasants Petty bourgeoisie National bourgeoisie Enemies of state in the PRC are: landlords

4 People vs Enemies of State Enemies of state in the PRC are: Landlords Bureaucratic capitalists KMT reactionaries Use of class labels Members of society classified based on family wealth, own history & social/political affiliation Poor and lower middle peasants Rich peasants landlords

5 People vs Enemies of State Use of class labels Workers Peddlers Shop owners Facts about class labels Class labels assigned to everyone Class labels assigned for life Class labels hereditary

6 People vs Enemies of State Political Use of class labels Class labels divide the society into two separate camps Class labels determine who to include and who to exclude in: Job assignment Education Promotion Distribution of resources

7 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns Land Reform & Land Redistribution Undermine the economic power of the landlords Disenfranchise the landlord class politically Resist the US and Aid Korea Eliminate pro-America & pro-West sentiments Rally nation against an external enemy Foster nationalism

8 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns Suppression of Counter-revolutionaries Eliminate secret societies Eliminate resistance from forces against the Communist regime Eliminate whoever who questioned the Communist rule Eliminate societal elements deemed as a hindrance to socialist transformation Drug dealers Pimps

9 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns Suppression of Counter-revolutionaries Eliminate societal elements deemed as a hindrance to socialist transformation Drug dealers Pimps Prostitutes Hooligans, thugs, fortune tellers “Three-anti-five-anti” campaigns Three-anti Anti-corruption

10 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns “Three-anti-five-anti” campaigns Three-anti Anti-corruption Anti-waste Anti-bureaucracy Five-anti Anti-bribery Anti tax evasion Anti fraud Anti theft of government property Anti theft of state economic secrets

11 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns The Hundred Flower Campaign: 1957 Discontent was rising in China Forced collectivization Nationalization Lack of freedom of expression Riots in Soviet bloc countries Khrushchev's de-Stalinization Hungarian Crisis Mao’s intention To ease tensions in Chinese society To ease popular discontent towards CCP

12 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns The Hundred Flower Campaign: 1957 Mao’s assumption Chinese people were unlike Hungarians Chinese people shared same interests as CCP Chinese people identified with CCP and CCP objectives People’s views are “non-antagonistic” Mao’s two internal speeches One in 1956 One in 1957

13 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns The Hundred Flower Campaign: 1957 Initial Societal Response Deafening silence (disbelief) Cautious criticism Larger role for CPPCC & minority parties More foreign academic journals Active Response Beijing University, big posters Intellectuals joined the criticism

14 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns Active Response Beijing University, big posters Intellectuals joined the criticism Entire society joined the criticism Major Criticisms Communist state is simply another feudal dynasty CCP is estranged from the masses Officials are not “servants of people”

15 Establishing State Authority Political Campaigns Major Criticisms CCP members are “flatterers, sycophants, and yes-men” Marxism-Leninism should not be dogma Collectivism hinders production “Volunteer” work is a nuisance Life was better under KMT CCP should not monopoly power Multi-party election ensures democracy

16 Establishing State Authority Hundred Flower Campaign Mao and CCP Response Initiation of Anti-Rightist campaign Who were “Rightists”? Some 500,000 people Nation’s best & brightest intellectuals, scholars, professors, scientists, students Punishment Jail term Labor camp Demotion, excommunication, banishment to rural areas

17 Establishing State Authority Hundred Flower Campaign Punishment Effect of Punishment Family breakup Stigma on entire family Disenfranchisement of entire family Life as social outcasts Was “hundred flower” a conspiracy? Did Mao intend to lure the opponents to expose themselves initially? Or did he under-estimate public sentiments towards the CCP?

18 Establishing State Authority Hundred Flower Campaign Was “hundred flower” a conspiracy? Did Mao intend to lure the opponents to expose themselves initially? Or did he under-estimate public sentiments towards the CCP? What does Prof. Dreyer say?

19 Establishing State Authority Hundred Flower Campaign Was “hundred flower” a conspiracy? Did Mao intend to lure the opponents to expose themselves initially? Or did he under-estimate public sentiments towards the CCP?

20 Establishing State Authority Hundred Flower Campaign The Case of Harry Wu A college student in 1957 Voiced criticism of Soviet invasion of Hungry Voiced criticism of the CCP Condemned as a “counter-revolutionary rightist” Sent to labor camp for 19 years Beaten, tortured and almost starved to death graphy.htm

21 Economic Transformation The Great Leap Forward, Why “Leap” Mao’s impatience with slow growth Limitation of Soviet model Population an asset of growth Sputnik & Khrushchev Short-term Objectives Iron-steel production Coal production Long-term Objectives Increase of productive power

22 Economic Transformation The Great Leap Forward, Approaches Mass mobilization Diversion of labor to steel production Creation of People’s Communes Consequences Grain production drop Severe market supply of necessities Strict rationing system implemented Starvation swept across the nation Peasant death in large numbers

23 Economic Transformation The Great Leap Forward, Unprecedented Environmental Damages Forest devastation Desertification in animal farming regions Rivers running dry in lower valleys Assault on sparrows Wildlife devastation (Mongolian gazelles)

24 Intra-Party Conflicts Evaluating the “Leap” The Lushan Conference, 1959 Marshal Peng Dehuai & Mao Peng’s letter “Leap” a waste of labor “Leap” counter-productive “leap” a violation of economic laws Mao’s response Oust Peng as defense minister Peng condemned as “anti-Party”

25 Cultural Revolution 1962 Expanded Party Conference Objective of Conference Evaluate Party leadership & work since 1958 Reaffirm economic consolidation policy Reaffirm production restoration measures Differences on Party Responsibility Liu Shaoqi Party leadership failure mainly responsible

26 Cultural Revolution 1962 Expanded Party Conference Differences on Party Responsibility Liu Shaoqi Lin Biao Economic fiascos results of failure to follow Mao’s instructions Mao leadership flawless. Socialist Education Campaign Mao: Officials are becoming corrupt Socialist China is in danger of capitalist restoration

27 Cultural Revolution CCP Leadership in Early 1966 Mao Tsetung: Chmn of CCP Central Committee Liu Shaoqi: President of PRC Zhou Enlai: Prime Minister Lin Biao: Vice Premier, & Defense Minister Jiang Qing: Mao’s wife Mao’s Economic Policy Collective economy is unshakable Individual production, hotbed of capitalism

28 Cultural Revolution Mao’s Economic Policy Mao’s Foreign Policy China should struggle with revisionist USSR China should struggle with the entire West China should support world revolution Mao’s Education Policy Formal education should be reformed Education be combined with labor Suspension of int’l educational exchanges Mao’s Policy towards Intellectuals Ideological reform of intellectuals

29 Cultural Revolution Liu’s Economic Policy China-foreign economic relations desirable Mixed economy serves socialist objectives Liu’s Education Policy Formal & informal education equally important Int’l educational exchanges important Liu’s Policy towards Intellectuals Intellectual activities respected

30 Cultural Revolution Liu’s Downfall August, 1966: 2nd to 8th in ranking Sept – Oct, 1966: public humiliation Nov, 1966: disappearance from public Oct, 1968: excommunication from CCP 1969: died in house arrest Liu’s Family Wife: accused of being an American spy; life imprisonment (changed from death sentence) Eldest son: suicide

31 Cultural Revolution Interpreting Cultural Revolution Factional Model Mao vs Liu Political Culture Model Tradition of authoritarian politics Palace Politics Model Mao Liu Lin Politics of succession

32 Cultural Revolution Aftermaths of Cultural Revolution Political crisis Political succession crisis Death of Lin Biao Mao’s prestige eroding Economic stagnation Rationing system permanent Production hardly matching population growth

33 Cultural Revolution Aftermaths of Cultural Revolution International relations US-China relations Nixon’s visit in 1972 Ford’s visit in 1975 China-USSR relations 1950 military alliance Soviet model & Sino-Soviet friendship Sino-Soviet ideological differences Sino-Soviet military clashes 1969

34 Cultural Revolution Aftermaths of Cultural Revolution International relations US-China relations China-USSR relations China-Europe relations 1964 Beijing-Paris diplomatic relations 1966, burning of British mission in Beijing China-Asia relations Indonesia North Korea

35 Cultural Revolution Aftermaths of Cultural Revolution Education Disruption of formal education Suspension of int’l educational ties Close of universities and colleges Abolition of college entrance tests

36 Major Actors in Mao Tsetung Zhou Enlai Deng Xiaoping Deputy prime minister A reformer Jiang Qing & “Gang of Four” Jiang: Mao’s wife

37 Major Actors in Jiang Qing & “Gang of Four” Jiang: Mao’s wife “Gang of Four” (Shanghai clique) Jiang Qing Zhang Chunqiao Wang Hongwen Yao Wenyuan Hua Guo-feng Deputy Prime Minister 1 st Vice Chairman and Prime Minister

38 Major Actors in Cultural Revolution (CR) Beneficiaries Mao Jiang Qing “Gang of Four” Hua Guofeng CR Victims Deng Xiaoping Ye Jianying

39 PRC in End of Mao Era Sept. 9, 1976, death of Mao Oct. 6, 1976, arrest of “Gang of 4” Rise of Hua Guofeng Hua: Chairman of CCP & Premier Policy Debate Hua: “two whatevers” Deng: “Seek truth from facts”

40 PRC in rd Plenum of 11 th Party Congress Nov-Dec 1978 Decisions Rehabilitate CR victims Suspend Mao’s mass class struggles Initiate economic reform Initiate open policy Reorient Party work on economic modernization

41 PRC in Rise of Deng Xiaoping Four modernizations Education reform Formal education Standard tests Restoration of university education Admission based on academic performance Restoration of int’l educational exchanges

42 PRC in Rise of Deng Xiaoping Four modernizations Education reform Intellectual Policy Socialist mental workers Int’l Economic Relations


Download ppt "Politics in Mao’s Era. Birth of “New China” Civil War in 1949 January, Beijing/Tianjin fell to CCP April, Nanking fell to CCP May, Shanghai fell to CCP."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google