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GREAT LEAP FORWARD HI 168: Lecture 13 Dr. Howard Chiang.

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Presentation on theme: "GREAT LEAP FORWARD HI 168: Lecture 13 Dr. Howard Chiang."— Presentation transcript:

1 GREAT LEAP FORWARD HI 168: Lecture 13 Dr. Howard Chiang

2 Mao and Khrushchev, 1958

3 OVERVIEW -Marriage Reform -Intellectuals -Hundred Flowers and Anti-Rightist Campaign -The Great Leap Forward -People’s Communes -Backlash against GLF -Great Famine -Lin Biao and Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping

4 MARRIAGE REFORM -Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China on April 13, 1950 -Free choice of partners, monogamy, equal rights for men and women, and ‘the protection of lawful interests of women and children’ -Gave cadres the authority to act on some of the worst cases of abuse -A serious challenge to the authority of the immediate and extended family

5 INTELLECTUALS -distrust of ‘intellectuals’ (zhishi fenzi, 知 識分子, ‘knowledgeable elements’) -Feng Xuefeng ( 馮雪峰 ), Hu Shi ( 胡適 ), and Hu Feng ( 胡風 ) – 5 daggers: study Marxism, live among the workers and peasants, counter bourgeois ideology, conserve national traditions, serve politics enthusiastically -Campaign against hidden counter- revolutionaries

6 HUNDRED FLOWERS -Zhou Enlai, Premier of PRC 1949-76: ‘Report on the Question of Intellectuals’ -‘sci & tech in socialist construction’ -‘let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend’ -Mao’s support – speech on May 2, 1956 -Feb. 1957, Mao spoke again – “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People”

7 ANTI-RIGHTIST CAMPAIGN -Students, journalists, historians, social scientists, and other academic researhcers – dissent and discontent -Anti-Rightist Campaign – a revised version of Mao’s ‘Contradictions’ -4-700,000 ‘rightists’ – subjected to public vilification, sent to farms where contacts with peasants ‘cured’ them -Deng Xiaoping, secretary-general -12,000 members of democratic parties

8 GREAT LEAP FORWARD -3 Red Banners: General Line for Building Socialism, Great Leap Forward, and People’s Communes -May 5-23, 1958 Second Plenary session of Eight Party Congress -Lin Biao, Hongqi (Red Flag), Mao’s ‘Introducing a Cooperative’ (1958) -Jun 22, Report on the Steel Output Plan: 1959 – 30 million tons 1962 – 50-90 million tons


10 PEOPLE’S COMMUNES -Aug 1958 Mao: Hebei, Henan, Shandong -Small and rural communes (township) vs. urban communes -Qiliying (Seven League Camp) commune: 53,200 population; 1, 394, 303 hectares of land; 56 advanced cooperatives; 38 production brigades; 298 production teams -Communes replaced existing local government at the township level

11 BACKLASH AGAINST GLF -Nov. 28-Dec. 10, 1958: 6th Plenary Session of the 8th Central Committee: ‘Resolution on Some Problems Concerning the People’s Communes’ -Decentralization of power in the communes and the restoration of ownership and management to the production team -Mao replaced by Liu Shaoqi as chairman of PRC

12 LUSHAN CONFERENCE -Peng Dehuai replaced by Marshal Lin Biao -Peng’s attack on Mao -Mao linked Peng with ‘revisionist’ -The 8 th Plenum of the Eighth Central Committee published on Aug 26 – some success at reducing economic targets, but ‘right opportunists’ lost their posts

13 Peng Dehuai

14 GREAT FAMINE -Policy errors and the transfer of labor from the land to impressive construction projects of dubious practical value led to a serious shortfall in the supply of foodstuffs -Bad weather and the withdrawal of the Soviet technicians alone could not account for more than 20 million excess deaths that were recorded between 1959 and 1961

15 LIN-MAO & LIU-DENG -Lin Biao & Mao Zedong: - Selected Works by Sep. 30, 1960 - Quotations from Chairman Mao – the ‘little red book’ - Socialist Education Movement (1962- 65) & PLA as model for everyone -Liu Shaoqi & Deng Xiaoping - drafted a series of weighty documents with the most uninspiring titles – dull but very practical

16 Lin Biao

17 Liu Shaoqi Deng Xiaoping

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