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GREAT LEAP FORWARD HI 168: Lecture 13 Dr. Howard Chiang.

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Presentation on theme: "GREAT LEAP FORWARD HI 168: Lecture 13 Dr. Howard Chiang."— Presentation transcript:

1 GREAT LEAP FORWARD HI 168: Lecture 13 Dr. Howard Chiang

2 Mao and Khrushchev, 1958

3 OVERVIEW -Marriage Reform -Intellectuals -Hundred Flowers and Anti-Rightist Campaign -The Great Leap Forward -People’s Communes -Backlash against GLF -Great Famine -Lin Biao and Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping

4 MARRIAGE REFORM -Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China on April 13, Free choice of partners, monogamy, equal rights for men and women, and ‘the protection of lawful interests of women and children’ -Gave cadres the authority to act on some of the worst cases of abuse -A serious challenge to the authority of the immediate and extended family

5 INTELLECTUALS -distrust of ‘intellectuals’ (zhishi fenzi, 知 識分子, ‘knowledgeable elements’) -Feng Xuefeng ( 馮雪峰 ), Hu Shi ( 胡適 ), and Hu Feng ( 胡風 ) – 5 daggers: study Marxism, live among the workers and peasants, counter bourgeois ideology, conserve national traditions, serve politics enthusiastically -Campaign against hidden counter- revolutionaries

6 HUNDRED FLOWERS -Zhou Enlai, Premier of PRC : ‘Report on the Question of Intellectuals’ -‘sci & tech in socialist construction’ -‘let a hundred flowers bloom and a hundred schools of thought contend’ -Mao’s support – speech on May 2, Feb. 1957, Mao spoke again – “On the Correct Handling of Contradictions among the People”

7 ANTI-RIGHTIST CAMPAIGN -Students, journalists, historians, social scientists, and other academic researhcers – dissent and discontent -Anti-Rightist Campaign – a revised version of Mao’s ‘Contradictions’ ,000 ‘rightists’ – subjected to public vilification, sent to farms where contacts with peasants ‘cured’ them -Deng Xiaoping, secretary-general -12,000 members of democratic parties

8 GREAT LEAP FORWARD -3 Red Banners: General Line for Building Socialism, Great Leap Forward, and People’s Communes -May 5-23, 1958 Second Plenary session of Eight Party Congress -Lin Biao, Hongqi (Red Flag), Mao’s ‘Introducing a Cooperative’ (1958) -Jun 22, Report on the Steel Output Plan: 1959 – 30 million tons 1962 – million tons


10 PEOPLE’S COMMUNES -Aug 1958 Mao: Hebei, Henan, Shandong -Small and rural communes (township) vs. urban communes -Qiliying (Seven League Camp) commune: 53,200 population; 1, 394, 303 hectares of land; 56 advanced cooperatives; 38 production brigades; 298 production teams -Communes replaced existing local government at the township level

11 BACKLASH AGAINST GLF -Nov. 28-Dec. 10, 1958: 6th Plenary Session of the 8th Central Committee: ‘Resolution on Some Problems Concerning the People’s Communes’ -Decentralization of power in the communes and the restoration of ownership and management to the production team -Mao replaced by Liu Shaoqi as chairman of PRC

12 LUSHAN CONFERENCE -Peng Dehuai replaced by Marshal Lin Biao -Peng’s attack on Mao -Mao linked Peng with ‘revisionist’ -The 8 th Plenum of the Eighth Central Committee published on Aug 26 – some success at reducing economic targets, but ‘right opportunists’ lost their posts

13 Peng Dehuai

14 GREAT FAMINE -Policy errors and the transfer of labor from the land to impressive construction projects of dubious practical value led to a serious shortfall in the supply of foodstuffs -Bad weather and the withdrawal of the Soviet technicians alone could not account for more than 20 million excess deaths that were recorded between 1959 and 1961

15 LIN-MAO & LIU-DENG -Lin Biao & Mao Zedong: - Selected Works by Sep. 30, Quotations from Chairman Mao – the ‘little red book’ - Socialist Education Movement ( ) & PLA as model for everyone -Liu Shaoqi & Deng Xiaoping - drafted a series of weighty documents with the most uninspiring titles – dull but very practical

16 Lin Biao

17 Liu Shaoqi Deng Xiaoping

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