3Roots1Roots anchor plant in soil, absorb minerals & water, & store foodfibrous roots (1)mat of thin roots that spread outmonocotstap roots (2)1 large vertical rootalso produces many small lateral, or branch rootsdicotsroot hairs (3)increase absorptive surface area23
4Basic plant anatomy 2 root shoot (stem) root tip root hairs nodes internodesbudsterminal or apical budsaxillary budsflower buds & flowers
10Interdependent systems Both systems depend on the otherroots depend on sugars produced by photosynthetic leavesshoots depend on water & minerals absorbed from the soil by rootssugarswater & minerals
11Plant TISSUES Dermal Ground Vascular epidermis (“skin” of plant) single layer of tightly packed cells that covers & protects plantGroundbulk of plant tissuephotosynthetic mesophyll, storageVasculartransport system in shoots & rootsxylem & phloem
12Plant CELL types in plant tissues Parenchyma“typical” plant cells = least specializedphotosynthetic cells, storage cellstissue of leaves, stem, fruit, storage rootsCollenchymaunevenly thickened primary wallssupportSclerenchymavery thick, “woody” secondary wallsrigid cells that can’t elongatedead at functional maturityIf I’d only had triplets!
13ParenchymaParenchyma cells are unspecialized, thin, flexible & carry out many metabolic functionsall other cell types in plants develop from parenchyma
14CollenchymaCollenchyma cells have thicker primary walls & provide supporthelp support without restraining growthremain alive in maturitythe strings in celery stalksare collenchyma
15Sclerenchyma Thick, rigid cell wall Cells for support lignin (wood) cannot elongatemostly dead at maturityCells for supportxylem vesselsxylem tracheidsfibersrope fiberssclereidsnutshellsseed coatsgrittiness in pears
16Structure–Function again! Vascular tissuevessel elementsXylemmove water & minerals up from rootsdead cells at functional maturityonly cell walls remainneed empty pipes to efficiently move H2Otranspirational pullvessel elementdead cellsAaaah…Structure–Function again!tracheids
18Phloem: food-conducting cells sieve tube elements & companion cells
19Structure–Function again! PhloemAaaah…Structure–Function again!Living cells at functional maturitycell membrane, cytoplasmcontrol of diffusionlose their nucleus, ribosomes & vacuolemore room for specialized transport of liquid food (sucrose)Cellssieve tubessieve plates — end walls — have pores to facilitate flow of fluid between cellscompanion cellsnucleated cells connected to the sieve-tubehelp sieve tubes
251. One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem.the cells of roots have cell walls that are lacking in leaf cells.a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent in roots.vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves.leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not.Answer: cSource: Taylor - Student Study Guide for Biology, Sixth Edition, Test Your Knowledge Question #33.
262. Three basic tissue types in plants are Xylem, phloem and tracheidDermal, vascular and groundParenchyma, schlerenchyma and colenchymaFibrous, xylem and phloemDermal, fibrous and vascularAnswer: cSource: Taylor - Student Study Guide for Biology, Sixth Edition, Test Your Knowledge Question #33.
273. Phloem transports Carbohydrates, Ions Water Minerals protein Answer: cSource: Taylor - Student Study Guide for Biology, Sixth Edition, Test Your Knowledge Question #33.
28True or False: Nothing is absorbed by the stem of a plant Nothing is absorbed by the leaves of a plantThe roots receive oxygen from the phloemMost of a xylem is dead at functional maturitySpines are modified leavesPotatoes are modified stemsA cucumber is a fruitAnswer: cSource: Taylor - Student Study Guide for Biology, Sixth Edition, Test Your Knowledge Question #33.