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Beyond Mendel: Exceptions/Additions to Mendel’s Laws

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1 Beyond Mendel: Exceptions/Additions to Mendel’s Laws
AP Biology

2 Exceptions to Mendelian Genetics
Mendel chose traits in peas that showed 2 distinct forms. Not all genes exhibit such simple inheritance. Alleles interact Genes interact Segregation of genes on same chromosome Mitochondrial DNA

3 Multiple Alleles A population can have more than 2 alleles for a gene.
Ex. Labrador Retriever coat color Determined by 1 gene with 4 alleles. Even if more than 2 alleles exist in a population, any given individual can only have 2 of them (1 from mother, 1 from father)

4 Multiple Alleles Black is dominant to chocolate
B: black b: chocolate Yellow is recessive epistatic (when present, it blocks the expression of the black and chocolate alleles) Yellow: E or e * must be ee to produce a yellow lab

5 BBEE BbEE BBEe BbEe bbEE bbEe BBee Bbee bbee Possible Genotypes

6 Problem #1 How do the multiple alleles act together to determine the coat color of a mouse? There are 3 varieties of coat color: black, brown, and white They are controlled by 4 different alleles (similar to the Labradors) BbCc x BbCc B=black, bb = brown cc is epistatic (white)


8 Problem #2 Determine the number of chocolate labs produced from a black female and a yellow male BbEe x bbee

9 Codominance Both alleles can be expressed
For example, red cows crossed with white will generate roan cows. Roan cows have red coats with white blotches.

10 Incomplete Dominance In some cases, an intermediate phenotype is shown. Neither allele is dominant. Ex. Snapdragons – flower color 3 phenotypes: red, white, pink Heterozygous condition results in pink flowers (the intermediate trait).

11 Incomplete Dominance - Snapdragons
A white (rr) snapdragon crossed with a red (RR) snapdragon produces all pink (Rr) offspring. Two pinks crossed together (Rr x Rr) produce 1/4 white, 2/4 pink, 1/4 red


13 Sex-Linked Genes Genes that are located on the X chromosome.
Females receive 2 alleles; males receive one. Ex. Color blindness, hemophilia Women can be carriers when they carry one gene for the disorder and one normal gene. Carriers can have sons with the disorder.

14 Normal Male and Female Carrier

15 Problem #3 Determine the probability of a woman with hemophilia having children with hemophilia assuming she marries a normal man.

16 Pleiotropy Some single alleles have more than one distinguishable phenotypic effect. This is called pleiotropy. Ex. Coloration pattern and crossed eyes of Siamese cats Both caused by the same allele. Unrelated characters caused by the same protein produced by the same allele.

17 Siamese Cat Siamese cats have a gene that codes for darker pigments - this gene is more active at low temperatures. Parts of the body that are colder will develop the darker pigmentation - ears, feet tail of the siamese cats

18 Pleiotropy Another example is the gene that causes pigment color in rats. White rats also have very sensitive eyes and often become blind.

19 Pleiotropy Another example is Marfan Syndrome.
Marfan Syndrome is a disease of the connective tissue. Symptoms: tall & thin, long extremities, deficiencies in eyes and skeletal system, enlarged heart

20 Polygenic Traits Individual heritable characters are often controlled by groups of several genes. These genes are called polygenes. Each allele intensifies or diminishes the phenotype. Variation is continuous or quantitative (adding up) Also called quantitative inheritance

21 Polygenic Traits Examples: Human hair, eye, and skin color Height
Weight Intelligence

22 Lethal Genes Some genes are lethal when both alleles are present.
Lethality (death) can occur before or after birth.

23 Lethal Genes Ex. The “creeper” allele in chickens, which causes the legs to be short and stunted. Creeper is a dominant gene. Heterozygous chickens display the creeper phenotype. If 2 creeper chickens are crossed, one would expect to have ¾ creeper and ¼ normal Instead, the ratio is 2/3 creeper and 1/3 normal.

24 Lethal Genes – Creeper Chickens

25 Lethal Genes Mexican hairless dogs result from a mutation in a gene that shows lethality. hh hairy normal trait Hh hairless one mutation present HH lethal two mutations = lethal

26 Manx Cats Cats possess a gene for producing a tail.
The tailless Manx phenotype in cats is produced by an allele that is lethal in its homozygous state. The allele interferes with normal spinal development, in heterozygous cats this results in lack of a tail.

27 Blood Types – Multiple Alleles and Codominance
4 blood types (humans) A, B, AB, and O Blood type is controlled by 3 alleles A, B, O O is recessive (must have two O alleles to have blood type O) A and B are codominant (if inherit an A and B, blood type is AB) Crosses involving blood type often use an I to represent the alleles

28 Blood Types The blood type determines what antibodies are located within the blood. Type A blood has type B antibodies If Type B blood is put into their body, their immune system reacts and antibodies clump the blood – can cause death Type AB blood has no antibodies, any blood can be donated to them; they are “universal acceptors” Type O blood has no antigens, antibodies in the blood do not react to type O blood, they are “universal donors”



31 Blood Type Cross

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