Presentation on theme: "Unit IV : Extension to Mendelian Genetics"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit IV : Extension to Mendelian Genetics Lecture 7Unit IV : Extension to Mendelian Genetics
2Mendel Inheritance: How do alleles interact with each other? Dominant allele: An allele that expresses its phenotype in the heterozygous state.Recessive allele: An allele whose phenotypic effect or trait is not expressed in a heterozygout state.
4Dominant/Recessive interactions The dominant allele will “cover up” the recessive allele.
5Her eyelashes are short Application: A girl inherits: a long eyelash allele from her father and a short eyelash allele from her mother.The short eyelash allele is dominant and the long eyelash allele is recessive.What is the length of the girl’s eyelashes?Her eyelashes are short
6Beyond dominant and recessive alleles Is dominance the only type of inheritance patterns?Beyond dominant and recessive allelesSome alleles are neither dominant nor recessiveSome exceptions to Simple Mendelian Genetics= Non Mendelian interactions
7Interaction 1: Incomplete Dominance When the 2 different alleles are present, the phenotype will look like a BLENDING of the two.Neither allele is dominant and heterozygous individuals have an intermediate phenotype between two parents
8Application: A tall tree is crossed with a short tree, what will the height of the new tree be?Medium heightFor height of the Sapping Evergreen Tree: the interaction of genes show incomplete dominance.
9Another question, a short tree is crossed with another short tree, what will the height of the new tree be?Short height
10Flower Color in Four’O clocks: GametesRWRRRRRRWGametesWF1 generationAll RWRWWWF2 generationWW1 : 2 : 1
11Incomplete dominance in carnations Red flowers - 2 alleles to make a red pigmentPink flowers have onenormal and one mutantallele; make a smalleramount of red pigmentWhite flowers – 2 alleles; can’t make red pigment
12Interaction 2: Codominance Neither allele can mask the other and both are fully expressed in the heterozygous offspring and not in an “intermediate” form.Example: red flowers that are crossed with blue flowers that yield red and blue flowers.A Capital Letter is used for first allele (R) and a Capital Letter with apostrophe (R’) for second allele. Given the Genotype RR’.
13Application: The genes for fur design of Panthers are codominant Application: The genes for fur design of Panthers are codominant. The 2 possible designs for fur are spotted and striped.A spotted panther is crossed with a striped panther.What will the fur design of the baby panther be?Spotted with stripes
14Application: in cattle, the heterozygous (Rr) determines roan coat color (mixed red(RR) and white(rr) hairs). When two roan cattle are crossed, the phenotypes ratio is 1 red:2 roan:1 white.Which of the following crosses could produce the highest percentage of roan cattle?A) roan x roanB) red x whiteC) white x roanD) red x roanE) All of the above crosses would give the same percentage of roan.
15Codominance 1. type A = IAIA or IAi 2. type B = IBIB or IBi Ex. ABO blood groupboth alleles expressed, IAIB = type AB blood IA allele expresses A antigen on the surface of red cell IB allele expresses B antigen on the surface of red cell Individuals with AB (IA IB ) blood group express both A and B antigens on their red cell surface.1. type A = IAIA or IAi2. type B = IBIB or IBi3. type AB = IAIB4. type O = ii
16Codominance Application Mendelian Genetics4/12/2017Codominance ApplicationExample: homozygous Type B (IBIB)x heterozygous Type A (IAi)IBIAiIAIBIBi1/2 = IAIB1/2 = IBicopyright cmassengale
17Codominance Application Mendelian Genetics4/12/2017Codominance ApplicationIf a boy has a blood type O and his sister has blood type AB,what are the genotypes and phenotypes of their parents?boy - type O (ii) X girl - type AB (IAIB)IBIAiIAIBiiParents:genotypes = IAi and IBiphenotypes = A and B
18Interaction 3: Multiple Alleles A gene may have more than 2 alleles for a trait in a population.Often, no single allele is dominant; each allele has its own effect.Multiple alleles (can occur in complete and incomplete dominance and in codominance)Example: ABO blood system
19ABO blood systemFour phenotypes (A,B,AB,O) and three alleles (A, B, and i)each individual only inherits two alleles: one from each parentThe gene encodes an enzyme that adds sugar on the surface of red blood cells.This gene, designated I, has three common alleles: IB, its enzyme adds galactose; IA, its enzyme adds galactosamine; and i, which codes for a protein that does not add a sugar.
20If a type A receives a transfusion of type B blood, the immune system recognizes that the type B blood cells possess a “foreign” antigen (galactose) and attacks the donated blood cells, causing the cells to clump, or agglutinate.This also happens if the donated blood is type AB.However, if the donated blood is type O, no immune attack will occur, as there are no galactose antigens on the surfaces of blood cells produced by the type O donor.In general, any individual’s immune system will tolerate a transfusion of type O blood.
22Interaction 4: Pleiotropy Single gene that causes multiple phenotypic traits (ex. sickle-cell disease)In sickle cell anemia, a defect in the oxygen carrying hemoglobin molecule causes anemia, heart failure, kidney failure, enlargement of the spleen....
23Interaction 5: Polygenic Inheritance 2 or more genes combine their effects to produce single phenotypic traitExample: skin and eye color, obesity, recurrent aborption and heart disease
24Polygenetic Inheritance Indicated by quanitative variation usuallyThis occurs when there is an additive effect from two or more genes.Pigmentation in humans is controlled by at least three (3) separately inherited genes.
25Interaction 6: Epistasis It’s a type of polygenic inheritance where the alleles at one gene locus can hide or prevent the expression of alleles at a second gene locus.Example: In Labrador retrievers (dog)one gene (E,e) affects one other of coat color (B,b) by controlling the amount of the pigment eumelanin in the fur.
26EpistasisE_Dark pigment in fureeNo dark pigment in furE_bbE_B_eebbeeB_Yellow furYellow furBrown furBlack furA dominant allele (B) produces a black coat while the recessive allele (b) produces a brown coatHowever, a second gene controls whether any eumelanin is deposited in the fur. The homozygous recessive dogs (ee) will have yellow fur
27Interaction 7: Environmental Effects on gene expression The degree to which an allele is expressed may depend on the environment factors.Some alleles are heat-sensitive, for example: such alleles are more sensitive to temperature than other alleles.The arctic foxes make fur pigment only when the weather is warm.Arctic fox in winter in summer
28Temperature Effects on Phenotype In Himalayan rabbits, Melanin is produced in cooler areas of body.an enzyme of melanin production is heat-sensitive (Homozygous genotype).
29The effect of environment of phenotype pH of the soil will change the color of hydrangea flowers from blue to pink
30Environmental Effects brown eye color requires phenylalanine from diet (alimentation) to produce melanin, the eye pigment
31Interaction 8: Lethal alleles Alleles implicate with survival of individuals carrying this genes those carrying homozygous allele die. Ex. Creeper hen have vestigial wings and legs. If two creeper hen are crossed, there is a ratio of 2 creepers : 1 normal hen among offsprings (not 3 : 1). Creeper allele (C) is dominant in its effect on wings and legs length, but recessive on its effect on viability. CC lethal, die before hatching Cc creeper hen cc normal hen, survive after hatching onInteraction 8: Lethal alleles
32Non- Mendelian Inheritance Mitochondria is organell with its own DNA (is not interfeared by DNA genom). During fertilization sperm penetrate its head into the egg & leave the tail containing mitochondria outside. zygote carry only mitochondria from egg (maternal) every individual mitochondrial DNA is inherited down the maternal line : from mother to children, and so on. Sex linked inheritance Alleles (genes) which occupy loci within sex chromo –somes, though express traits of non sex-determiners are said to be “sex linked”.
33Environmental effects on gene expression Sex linkage Does these examples of inheritance patterns argue that Mendel was wrong?No, Genetics is not as simple as Gregor Mendel concluded, (one gene, one trait).We know now that there is a range of dominance and that genes can work together and interact.Incomplete dominanceCodominanceMultiple allelesPolygenic traitsEpistasisPleiotropyEnvironmental effects on gene expressionSex linkage