Presentation on theme: "Discussion Today’s BW focuses on effects of WWII. If you need help, refer to your ch. 9 packet 1.Hitler and Stalin were personally responsible for the."— Presentation transcript:
Discussion Today’s BW focuses on effects of WWII. If you need help, refer to your ch. 9 packet 1.Hitler and Stalin were personally responsible for the removal of ___________ people. How & why did they do this? 2.WWII was much more economically devastating than WWI…… WHY??? 3.Read the excerpt from Judt’s Postwar: A History of Europe (pg179) According to him, how were politics different post-WWI vs. post- WWII? 4.Describe the political/territorial changes in Europe post-WWII. 5.List three changes implemented by the Allies in Japan post-WWII. 6.How did WWII affect European empires and colonies? 7.THINKER: List the primary military, political, and economic reason that the US and USSR emerged as superpowers.
Effects of WWII Social, Political, Economic and Military Effects of WWII in Europe & Asia.
Human Cost Hitler and Stalin were personally responsible for the removal of ___________ people. How & why did they do this? 50 million deaths (2/3 civilians) 20 million displaced/homeless Stalin & Hitler responsible for forced removals of 30 million people
Hitler and the Final Solution “Once I really am in power, my first and foremost task will be the annihilation of the Jews... until all Germany has completely been cleansed of Jews.” – Adolf Hitler
Auschwitz 3 million died here by systematic starvation, forced labor, lack of disease control, individual executions, and "medical experiments". Camp was divided into three parts: – Auschwitz I – administration – Auschwitz II – extermination camp – Auschwitz III – labor camp. Soviet troops liberated the camp on January 27, 1947, which came to be known as Holocaust Remembrance day.
Stalin & The Gulag Gulag: abbreviation of Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, (Russian: “Chief Administration of Corrective Labor Camps”) System of Soviet labor camps and prisons from the 1920s to the mid-1950s Housed political prisoners and criminals of the Soviet Union. Under the control of the secret police The Gulag consisted of hundreds of camps, with the average camp holding 2,000–10,000 prisoners. Although the gulag was not a “death camp,” prisoners were often worked to death In total, there were 53 separate camps and 423 labor colonies in the USSR
Stalin & The Gulag Most of these camps were “corrective labor colonies” in which prisoners chopped timber, labored on general construction projects (such as the building of canals and railroads), or worked in mines. Used as a form of political/ideological repression Constant threat of starvation or execution if they refused to work It is estimated that the combination of very long working hours, harsh climatic and other working conditions, inadequate food, and executions killed off at least 10 percent of the Gulag’s total prisoner population each year. Western scholarly estimates of the total number of deaths in the Gulag in the period from 1918 to 1956 range from 15 to 30 million. Today's major industrial cities of the Russian Arctic (Norilsk, Vorkuta, Magadan) were originally camps built by prisoners and run by ex- prisoners
The camp established in Verkhoyansk (Siberia) reached the lowest recorded temperature ever…… -90⁰F
Economic Cost WWII was much more economically devastating than WWI……. WHY??? Fighting all over Europe Aerial bombing left millions dead, destroyed transportation, communication, industry and farmland Victors emerged from the conflict almost as devastated as the losers (Britain & USSR)
Economic Cost CountryCost ($ in 2000) United States$288 billion Great Britain$117 billion France$111 billion USSR$93 billion Germany$212 billion Japan$41 billion Manila, Philippines
Discussion Read the excerpt from Judt’s Postwar: A History of Europe (pg179) According to him, how were politics different post-WWI vs. post- WWII?
Effects in post-WWII Germany Germany was totally defeated, and the Nazi regime brought down. Its leaders were tried for crimes against humanity at Nuremberg. German cities were in ruins from a massive bombing campaign. Germany was divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers
Effects in post-WWII England England was devastated by the war, having experienced extensive bombing during the 1940 blitz by the Germans. The economy depended on recovery & aid from the United States. England rapidly phased out most of its remaining colonies in the years immediately following the war.
Effects in post-WWII France France had not experienced the enormous human losses sustained in the First World War, but would have to recover from the effects of Nazi occupation. Like England, France would be compelled to dismantle its colonial empire in the years following the war. This was a particularly traumatic and drawn out process for the French, in Algeria and in Vietnam where they fought prolonged and bitter wars in an attempt to maintain their colonial control. England and France no longer held a status of power comparable to the United States or the Soviet Union.
Effects in post-WWII Soviet Union The Soviets had suffered immeasurably during the war, and western SU was devastated by the land warfare which was primarily on Soviet territory. But, in the process of defeating the Germans, the Russians had built a large and powerful army, which occupied most of Eastern Europe at the end of the war. WWII was seen as a triumph of communism over fascism The great resources and population of SU assured that the Soviet Union would be, along with the United States, one of two super-powers.
Effects in post-WWII United States The United States economy was greatly stimulated by the war, even more so than in World War I. The depression was brought to an end, and new industrial centers were built all over the United States. By avoiding the physical destruction of war, the U.S. economy dominated the world economy. After 4 years of military buildup, the U.S. had also become the leading military power. US could no longer be isolationist since all of Western Europe depended on strength of democracy. The position of the United States as world leader was now more obvious than ever.
Political Consequences Describe the political/territorial changes in Europe post- WWII. All the countries the Red Army liberated – Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania – became one-party regimes under Stalin’s control Growing hostility between the Western Allies and USSR, led to a permanent division of Germany in 1949 How did WWII affect European empires and colonies? European countries could not maintain control of oversea empires
Effects of WWII in Asia List three changes implemented by the Allies in Japan post-WWII Japan was eliminated as a major power Allied occupation of Japan; MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) Removal of Japanese troops in China – In 1949, China falls to communism under Zedong Territories are reclaimed: Taiwan, Korea (divided), Pacific Islands SU gets control of Sakhalin and Kuril Islands The Emperor would help maintain political stability and facilitate reform Japan was turned into a democratic state with a new constitution
Treaty of San Francisco What did this treaty rule? Who was left out? Why? Japanese compensation to countries occupied during 1941–45 CountryAmount in US$Date of treaty Burma200,000,000November 5, 1955 Philippines550,000,000May 9, 1956 Indonesia223,080,000January 20, 1958 Vietnam38,000,000May 13, 1959 TotalUS$1,012,080,000N/A
In accordance with Clause 14 of the Treaty, Allied forces confiscated all assets owned by the Japanese government, firms, organization and private citizens, in all colonized or occupied countries Japanese overseas assets in 1945 (¥15=1US$) Country/regionValue (US Dollars) Korea468,370,000 Taiwan2,846,100,000 North East China9,768,800,000 North China3,695,800,000 Central South China2,447,900,000 Others1,867,600,000 Total$25,300,000,000
Establishment of War Tribunals Nuremburg Trials: November 1945-October 1946 – 21 leading Nazis charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity International Tribunal in Tokyo: 1945 (three-year period) – 5,700 Japanese war criminals tried & about 1,000 executed
Defendants in the Nuremburg Trials. The main target of the prosecution was Hermann Göring (left, front) considered to be the most important surviving official in the Third Reich after Hitler's death. ***Not included were Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels, all of whom had committed suicide several months before the indictment
Outcome of Nuremburg Trials Out of the 21 Nazis tried, 12 were sentenced to death. 2 committed suicide prior to execution date Remaining 10 were hanged Chief American prosecutor Robert H. Jackson addresses the Nuremberg court.
Nazi Escape through Ratlines Ratlines: system of escape routes for Fascists These escape routes mainly led toward havens in South America, particularly Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, and Bolivia. Other destinations included the United States, Great Britain, Canada and the Middle East. There were two primary routes: the first went from Germany to Spain, then Argentina; the second from Germany to Rome to Genoa, then South America 13 top ranking Nazis escaped to South America – Joseph Mengele, head doctor at Auschwitz lived rest of his life in Brazil – Gustav Wagner, Staff Sargent of SS lived rest of life in Argentina – Other “missing” officials were assumed to escape, but never found
War Tribunal in Tokyo Trials were carried out by General MacArthur and an appointed 11 judges (Australia, Canada, China, France, India, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, UK, US & USSR)
Defendants were charged with conventional war crimes, crimes against peace, and crimes against humanity. The trial continued for more than two and a half years, hearing testimony from 419 witnesses and admitting 4,336 exhibits of evidence, including depositions and affidavits from 779 other individuals.