Presentation on theme: "AFTERMATH. COSTS WWII most costly conflict in history w/ casualties, destruction & wealth expended USSR – 10M military & 10M civilian dead Germany – 5M."— Presentation transcript:
COSTS WWII most costly conflict in history w/ casualties, destruction & wealth expended USSR – 10M military & 10M civilian dead Germany – 5M soldiers & 1M+ civilians dead Japan – 2.5M military & civilian dead China – 2.5M military & 10-20M civilians China had 8 years of conflict, to be followed by 4 more of civil war
COSTS France, Great Britain & Italy w/ 400K deaths (military & civilian) Poland – 300K Military & 5M civilian deaths US - 400K+ KIA Up to 30M refugees in Europe $3-4T in costs Destruction left European infrastructure in ruins
GERMAN WAR CRIMES The Nuremberg Trial indictments were for: 1. Crimes against peace - initiating and waging wars of aggression 2. War crimes – killing hostages and POWs, plundering & destruction of towns & cities 3. Crimes against humanity – murder, extermination, deportation & enslavement of civilians 1 tried in absentia (Martin Bormann) 2 Germans acquitted (Hans Fritzsche, Franz von Papen)
WAR CRIMINALS Hitler & Himmler avoid trial w/ suicides 11/45 - trials convene in Nuremberg w/ indictments against 24 German leaders Best known: Goering, Ribbontrop, Speer, Gen. Keitel & Jodl, Adm. Raeder & Donitz 10/46 – death sentence for 11 by hanging Goering commits suicide b/f he is hung More trials in each occupation zone In Japan, 40 tried & 7 receive death sentence, incl. Tojo
WAR CRIMINALS Gen. Shiro Ishii (medical experiments on POWs) trades death sentence for records of their research Criticism of trials: 1) any legal standing? (no world state, yet) 2) no international laws, yet, so all indictments retroactive (ex post facto) 3) Allied behavior any better? (USSR, fire- bombing, atomic bombs)
IRON CURTAIN From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.
POLITICS 5 countries leave “great power” status – Fr., Brit., It., Jap., Germ. 2 superpowers remained – US (capitalism & democracy) & USSR (communism & totalitarianism) Power vacuums in Europe & East Asia There was a rollback of European colonial empires and a rise in national liberation movements
POLITICS FDR & Churchill could do little about E Europe w/ Soviet Army already in place USSR annexed – Baltic states & parts of Finland, Pol., Czech., Rom. USSR satellites – Poland, E. Germ., Czech., Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria Yugoslavia & Albania became Communist, but free of USSR influence
POLITICS Truman Doctrine – aid to Greece & Turkey to resist Communist takeover attempts Marshall Plan – econ. aid to any Euro. country; USSR & satellites turn it down $12B spent b/t 1948 & 1951 WWII marked the origins of the welfare state in Europe
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