3 The Fertile Crescent Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates Large arc of fertile farmland in the Middle EastMesopotamia“Middle of the river area” “land between the rivers”Tigris and EuphratesThe two major rivers of MesopotamiaSiltMakes the Fertile Crescent… fertile
4 The Fertile Crescent Irrigation Canals Surplus Bringing water to cropsCanalsMan-made waterways for irrigation and tradeSurplusExtra food that can be stored or soldDivision of labor (specialization)Different people having different jobs
6 Sumer Civilization formed along river banks … Why? Silt made land fertile and allowed for permanent settlements“Neolithic Revolution” made this possibleAgricultureDomesticationHad developed city-states by 3500 BCLasted until about 1900 BC
8 City-States Rural vs. Urban City-state Examples Kish, Uruk, Ur Rural = countryside; Urban = cityCity-stateConsisted of a city and surrounding countrysideExamples Kish, Uruk, UrLike an independent countryLaws, language, religion, militaryRuled by a king (lugal)Lugal = “the big man”
9 City-State of Ur Click to view in Google Maps 30°57'45.07"N 46° 6'9.85"E
10 Lugal Gilgamesh King (lugal) of Uruk 31°19'12.00"N 45°37'48.00"E What does this statue tell us about Gilgamesh? What was the sculptor telling us?Holding a lion and a snake (power)Long beard (wisdom)Propaganda !!!
15 Social Hierarchy Social Hierarchy King Upper class Middle class Division of society by rank or class (social classes)King(Lugal – “the big man”) ruled a city-stateChosen by gods to ruleUpper classPriests, government officials, scribes, landownersMiddle classSkilled workers, craftsmen, traders, farmersLower classUnskilled laborers, farm workers, slaves
17 Advances and Inventions The WheelUsed for carts and wagons; potter’s wheel; carsThe PlowIncreased farm productionScienceNames of animals, plants, and mineralsMedicines for healing and catalogued medical knowledgeNumber system based on 6060 sec., 60 min., 24 hour day, 360 degreesBabylonian Mathematics Video
18 Writing Cuneiform World’s first system of writing Cuneiform symbols could represent syllables. Earlier pictographs had represented only objects.The Sumerians wrote on clay tablets with a stylus.ScribesWritersKept track of items people traded and wrote down government recordsScribes could move up in social class.What they wroteWrote works of literature, stories, proverbs, and songsWrote poems about the gods and military victories.Created epics, long poems that tell the stories of heroes.