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And Frequently Used Abbreviations Medical Terminology.

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Presentation on theme: "And Frequently Used Abbreviations Medical Terminology."— Presentation transcript:

1 And Frequently Used Abbreviations Medical Terminology

2 Objectives The student will be able to analyze medical terminology to determine the meaning of medical terms describing patients’ conditions, symptoms, diagnostic tests and surgical procedures The student will be able to understand commonly used medical abbreviations The student will be able to list certain abbreviations which are to be avoided.

3 Medical Terms You Probably Know Appendectomy Tonsillitis Inflammation Umbilical Mammogram

4 Medical Terms You Will Be Able to analyze and understand after this class EGD or Esophagogastroduodenoscopy ERCP or Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Nephrolithiasis Hip Arthroplasty and Hip Arthroscopy Hemoptysis Thoracentesis Hyperplasia Tachycardia Pneumonectomy BSO or Bilateral Salpingoophorectomy

5 Categories of Medical Terms 1. Descriptive: describes the shape, color, size, function Example: Erythrocyte (Erythr means red, cyte means cell) 2. Eponyms: terms named after a person (usually the first person to discovered or described a disease or organ) Example: Eustachian tubes are named after Bartolommeo Eustachii; Alzheimer’s disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, MD.

6 Categories of Medical Terms 3. Acronyms: An abbreviation that forms a pronouncible word Examples: CAT or computerized axial tomography SOAP: subjective, objective, analysis, plan CABG: coronary artery bypass graft PERRLA: pupils equally round, reactive to light and accommodation

7 Test How did we get the name “Foley Catheter”

8 Test How did we get the name “Salmonella”?

9 Answers Dr. Frederick Foley (1891-1966) Dr. Daniel Salmon (1850-1914)

10 Test: Acronyms What do you think the initials PICU stand for? How about GERD?



13 Basic Parts of Medical Words 1. Roots: usually the middle of the word and its central meaning 2. Prefix: a syllable at the beginning of the word which usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning 3. Suffix: comes at the end of the central meaning and refers to what or who is interacting or what is happening regarding it.

14 Prefix beginning of the word identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning Root middle of the word its central meaning Suffix end of the word what is happening or who is referred to

15 Example Myocarditis Root: card (referring to the heart) Prefix: myo (referring to the muscle) Suffix: itis (inflammation) Meaning: inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix, back to the beginning of the term, and then across.

16 Myocarditis

17 Changes Prefix change: Pericarditis (inflammation of the outer layer of the heart) Endocartitis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart) Suffix change: Cardiologist ( a physician specializing in the heart) Cardiomyopathy (damage to heart muscle layer) Cardiomegaly (enlargement of the heart)

18 Pericarditis

19 Endocarditis

20 Also: Combining vowels Usually is the letter “O” but may be A, E, I, U or Y Usually has no meaning of its own but is used to connect the root and the suffix or two roots and two suffixes Example: ELECTR O CARDI O GRAM GASTR O ENTER ITIS


22 Plurals 1. Words ending in a, retain the a add ae : vertebra - vertebrae 2. Words ending in is, drop the is and add es: Diagnosis - diagnoses 3. Words ending in ex or ix, drop the ex or ix and add ices: apex - apices 4. Words ending in on, drop the on and add a: ganglion - ganglia 5. Words ending in um, drop the um and add a: bacterium - bacteria 6. Words ending in us, drip the us and add i: bronchus - bronchi

23 Terms for Body Systems: Cardiovascular angi/ovessel aorto/oaorta arteri/oartery cardi/oheart coron/oheart phleb/ovein ven/ovein

24 Terms for Body Systems: Digestive an/oanus append/oappendix cholecyst/ogallbladder col/ocolon duoden/oduodenum esophag/oesophagus gastr/ostomach hepat/oliver ile/oileum

25 Terms for Body Systems: Digestive jejun/ojejunum or/omouth pancreat/opancreas pharyng/opharynx proct/oanus and rectum rect/orectum sigmoid/osigmoid stomat/omouth

26 Terms for Body Systems: Endocrine adren/oadrenal hypophys/opituitary oophor/oovary ovari/oovarian orchi/otestis pancreat/opancreas parathyroid/oparathyroid pituitar/opituitary thym/othymus thyroid/othyroid

27 Terms for Body Systems: Reproductive cervic/ocervix vagin/ovagina hyster/outerus mamm/obreast uter/outerine oophor/oovary salping/ofallopian tube balan/openis orch/otestis prostat/oprostate scrot/oscrotum

28 Terms for Body Systems: Musculoskeletal arthr/ojoint chondr/ocartilage cost/orib crani/oskull ligament/oligament my/omuscle muscul/omuscle myel/obone marrow oste/obone pelv/opelvis vertebr/overtebra

29 Terms for Body Systems: Nervous System cerebell/ocerebellum cerebr/ocerebrum encephal/obrain medull/omedulla myel/ospinal cord neur/onerve

30 Terms for Body Systems: Respiratory alveol/oalveolar bronch/obronchial tube cyan/oblue laryng/olarynx nas/onose rhin/onose pharyng/opharynx phren/odiaphragm pneumon/olung tonsill/otonsils trache/otrachea

31 Terms for Body Systems: Eye, Ear, Nails, Skin aur/oear ot/oear cutane/oskin derm/oskin myring/oeardrum ocul/oeye onych/onail ophthalm/oeye pil/ohair retin/oretina trich/ohair ungu/onail

32 Terms for Body Systems: Urinary cyst/ourinary bladder nephr/okidney ren/orenal pyl/orenal pelvis ureter/oureter urethr/ourethra

33 Test: Identify the type of specialist Neurolgist Orthopedist Pathologist Urologist Pulmonologist

34 Prefixes: At the beginning of a word PrefixMeaningExample A, anno, not, withoutApnea Abaway fromabduction Adtowardadduction Anaup, apartanalysis Antebefore, forwardantepartum Antiagainstantibody Bitwo, bothbilateral

35 Prefixes Bradyslowbradycardia Circumaroundcircumoral Conwith, togethercongenital Contraagainst contraindicated Diacompletediarrhea Dysbad, painful, difficultdysuria abnormaldyspnea

36 Prefixes Ecout, outsideectopic pregnancy Endowithin, in, innerendoscopy Epiabove, uponepidermis Exoutexcision Extraextraextrahepatic Hemihalfhemiplegia Hypertoo much, above hyperthyroidism Hypodeficient, too little hypothermia

37 Prefixes Inin, intoincision Interbetweenintervertebral Intrawithinintravenous Malbadmalignant Megabigmegakaryocyte Metachange, beyondmetastasis Microsmallmicroscopic Neonewneonatal

38 Prefixes Para beside, near, alongside of parathyroid Perisurroundingperiosteum Polymany, much polyuria Postafter, behindpostpartum Prebeforeprecancerous Probefore, forwardprolapse Prosbefore, forwardprosthesis

39 Prefixes Quadrifourquadriplegia Reback, behindrelapse Retroback, behindretroperitoneal Subunder, less thansubcutaneous Synwith, togethersyndrome TachyFasttachycardia Transacross, throughtransabdominal Trithreetricuspid valve

40 Suffixes: at the end of a word SUFFIXMEANINGEXAMPLE alpertaining toneural algiapainarthralgia cytecellleukocyte ectomyremoval, excisiongastrectomy emiablood conditionleukemia globinproteinhemoglobin gramrecord (xray)arthrogram iaconditionhyperglycemia icpertaining togastric

41 Suffixes ismcondition, process hypothyroidism itisinflammation appendicitis logistspecialist in the neurologist study of logystudy of neurology omatumor, mass hepatoma opsyto view biopsy osisabnormal condition nephrosis plastysurgical repair arthroplasty (with hardware)

42 Suffixes scopevisual exam with gastroscope an instrument scopyvisual examarthroscopy o(with an instrument) sisstate ofprognosis tomycutting into,appendectomy incision unioneunilateral

43 Test What do you think is the name of the surgical procedure pictured in the next slide?


45 Common abbreviations Abdabdomen Acbefore meals Ad libfreely as desired AKAabove the knee amputation A & Oalert and oriented Assistassistance BKAbelow the knee amputation Bidtwice a day

46 Common abbreviations Bmbowel movement BPblood pressure BSbowel sounds, breath sounds, blood sugar BSCbedside commode bxbiopsy ˉcwith CBCcomplete blood count Cathcatheter Cmcentimeter c/ocomplains of

47 Common abbreviations CO2carbon dioxide C&Sculture and sensitivity CXRchest x-ray D/Cdiscontinue, discharge DNRdo not resuscitate DOBdate of birth DOEdyspnea on exertion Dxdiagnosis

48 Common abbreviations F/Ufollow-up Fxfracture Ggram GIgastrointestinal Hrhour Hbghemoglobin Hcthematocrit Hxhistory

49 Common abbreviations I & Dincision and drainage I & Ointake and output IMintramuscular IVintravenous Kpotassium Lleft Latlateral LOClevel of consciousness LQlower quadrant (of abdomen)

50 Common abbreviations mmeter; milli (one thousandth) mgmilligram mlmillileter mmmillimeter Nasodium NKAno known allergies N & Vnausea and vomiting O2oxygen OOBout of be

51 Common abbreviations pafter Ppulse pcafter meals Perby poby mouth POD #post-op day # Prepprepare for Prnas needed Ptpatient Pxprognosis

52 Common abbreviations qevery Qid4 times a day Rright Rxtreatment, prescription Sigdirections or medical instructions SOBshortness of breath Statimmediately Sub-qsubcutaneous Sxsurgery

53 Common abbreviations Ttemperature Tabtablet Tid3 times a day T,P,Rtemp, pulse, respirations Txtreatment UAurinalysis UQupper quadrant (of abdomen) VSvital signs

54 Common abbreviations VSWNLvital signs within normal limits WBCwhite blood cell (count) WNLwithin normal limits Wtweight w/uworkup Y, yryear y/oyear(s) old

55 Common Symbols more than =equals ≈ approximately ↑ increase ↓decrease ∆change ♀ female ♂ male

56 Abbreviations to be avoided MS4write “Morphine” ODwrite “right eye” OSwrite “left eye” OUwrite “ both eyes” Qdwrite “daily” QODwrite “every other day”.1write “0.1” 1.0write “1” Gtt.write “drop” HSwrite “at bedtime”

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