Presentation on theme: "And Frequently Used Abbreviations Medical Terminology."— Presentation transcript:
And Frequently Used Abbreviations Medical Terminology
Objectives The student will be able to analyze medical terminology to determine the meaning of medical terms describing patients’ conditions, symptoms, diagnostic tests and surgical procedures The student will be able to understand commonly used medical abbreviations The student will be able to list certain abbreviations which are to be avoided.
Medical Terms You Probably Know Appendectomy Tonsillitis Inflammation Umbilical Mammogram
Medical Terms You Will Be Able to analyze and understand after this class EGD or Esophagogastroduodenoscopy ERCP or Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Nephrolithiasis Hip Arthroplasty and Hip Arthroscopy Hemoptysis Thoracentesis Hyperplasia Tachycardia Pneumonectomy BSO or Bilateral Salpingoophorectomy
Categories of Medical Terms 1. Descriptive: describes the shape, color, size, function Example: Erythrocyte (Erythr means red, cyte means cell) 2. Eponyms: terms named after a person (usually the first person to discovered or described a disease or organ) Example: Eustachian tubes are named after Bartolommeo Eustachii; Alzheimer’s disease is named after Alois Alzheimer, MD.
Categories of Medical Terms 3. Acronyms: An abbreviation that forms a pronouncible word Examples: CAT or computerized axial tomography SOAP: subjective, objective, analysis, plan CABG: coronary artery bypass graft PERRLA: pupils equally round, reactive to light and accommodation
Test How did we get the name “Foley Catheter”
Test How did we get the name “Salmonella”?
Answers Dr. Frederick Foley ( ) Dr. Daniel Salmon ( )
Test: Acronyms What do you think the initials PICU stand for? How about GERD?
Basic Parts of Medical Words 1. Roots: usually the middle of the word and its central meaning 2. Prefix: a syllable at the beginning of the word which usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning 3. Suffix: comes at the end of the central meaning and refers to what or who is interacting or what is happening regarding it.
Prefix beginning of the word identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning Root middle of the word its central meaning Suffix end of the word what is happening or who is referred to
Example Myocarditis Root: card (referring to the heart) Prefix: myo (referring to the muscle) Suffix: itis (inflammation) Meaning: inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix, back to the beginning of the term, and then across.
Changes Prefix change: Pericarditis (inflammation of the outer layer of the heart) Endocartitis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart) Suffix change: Cardiologist ( a physician specializing in the heart) Cardiomyopathy (damage to heart muscle layer) Cardiomegaly (enlargement of the heart)
Also: Combining vowels Usually is the letter “O” but may be A, E, I, U or Y Usually has no meaning of its own but is used to connect the root and the suffix or two roots and two suffixes Example: ELECTR O CARDI O GRAM GASTR O ENTER ITIS
Examples GASTR O ENTER O LOGY (ROOT) (ROOT) (SUFFIX) GASTR O SCOPE (ROOT) (SUFFIX) GASTR IC (ROOT) (SUFFIX) GASTR O ENTER ITIS (ROOT) (ROOT) (SUFFIX)
Plurals 1. Words ending in a, retain the a add ae : vertebra - vertebrae 2. Words ending in is, drop the is and add es: Diagnosis - diagnoses 3. Words ending in ex or ix, drop the ex or ix and add ices: apex - apices 4. Words ending in on, drop the on and add a: ganglion - ganglia 5. Words ending in um, drop the um and add a: bacterium - bacteria 6. Words ending in us, drip the us and add i: bronchus - bronchi
Terms for Body Systems: Cardiovascular angi/ovessel aorto/oaorta arteri/oartery cardi/oheart coron/oheart phleb/ovein ven/ovein
Terms for Body Systems: Digestive an/oanus append/oappendix cholecyst/ogallbladder col/ocolon duoden/oduodenum esophag/oesophagus gastr/ostomach hepat/oliver ile/oileum
Terms for Body Systems: Digestive jejun/ojejunum or/omouth pancreat/opancreas pharyng/opharynx proct/oanus and rectum rect/orectum sigmoid/osigmoid stomat/omouth
Terms for Body Systems: Endocrine adren/oadrenal hypophys/opituitary oophor/oovary ovari/oovarian orchi/otestis pancreat/opancreas parathyroid/oparathyroid pituitar/opituitary thym/othymus thyroid/othyroid
Terms for Body Systems: Reproductive cervic/ocervix vagin/ovagina hyster/outerus mamm/obreast uter/outerine oophor/oovary salping/ofallopian tube balan/openis orch/otestis prostat/oprostate scrot/oscrotum
Terms for Body Systems: Musculoskeletal arthr/ojoint chondr/ocartilage cost/orib crani/oskull ligament/oligament my/omuscle muscul/omuscle myel/obone marrow oste/obone pelv/opelvis vertebr/overtebra
Terms for Body Systems: Nervous System cerebell/ocerebellum cerebr/ocerebrum encephal/obrain medull/omedulla myel/ospinal cord neur/onerve
Terms for Body Systems: Respiratory alveol/oalveolar bronch/obronchial tube cyan/oblue laryng/olarynx nas/onose rhin/onose pharyng/opharynx phren/odiaphragm pneumon/olung tonsill/otonsils trache/otrachea
Terms for Body Systems: Urinary cyst/ourinary bladder nephr/okidney ren/orenal pyl/orenal pelvis ureter/oureter urethr/ourethra
Test: Identify the type of specialist Neurolgist Orthopedist Pathologist Urologist Pulmonologist
Prefixes: At the beginning of a word PrefixMeaningExample A, anno, not, withoutApnea Abaway fromabduction Adtowardadduction Anaup, apartanalysis Antebefore, forwardantepartum Antiagainstantibody Bitwo, bothbilateral
Suffixes: at the end of a word SUFFIXMEANINGEXAMPLE alpertaining toneural algiapainarthralgia cytecellleukocyte ectomyremoval, excisiongastrectomy emiablood conditionleukemia globinproteinhemoglobin gramrecord (xray)arthrogram iaconditionhyperglycemia icpertaining togastric
Suffixes ismcondition, process hypothyroidism itisinflammation appendicitis logistspecialist in the neurologist study of logystudy of neurology omatumor, mass hepatoma opsyto view biopsy osisabnormal condition nephrosis plastysurgical repair arthroplasty (with hardware)
Suffixes scopevisual exam with gastroscope an instrument scopyvisual examarthroscopy o(with an instrument) sisstate ofprognosis tomycutting into,appendectomy incision unioneunilateral
Test What do you think is the name of the surgical procedure pictured in the next slide?
Common abbreviations Abdabdomen Acbefore meals Ad libfreely as desired AKAabove the knee amputation A & Oalert and oriented Assistassistance BKAbelow the knee amputation Bidtwice a day
Common abbreviations Bmbowel movement BPblood pressure BSbowel sounds, breath sounds, blood sugar BSCbedside commode bxbiopsy ˉcwith CBCcomplete blood count Cathcatheter Cmcentimeter c/ocomplains of
Common abbreviations CO2carbon dioxide C&Sculture and sensitivity CXRchest x-ray D/Cdiscontinue, discharge DNRdo not resuscitate DOBdate of birth DOEdyspnea on exertion Dxdiagnosis