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Ilse de Jager Nutritional benefits of grain legume cultivation within the N2Africa project in Northern Ghana.

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Presentation on theme: "Ilse de Jager Nutritional benefits of grain legume cultivation within the N2Africa project in Northern Ghana."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ilse de Jager Nutritional benefits of grain legume cultivation within the N2Africa project in Northern Ghana

2 N2Africa project Ghana, Nigeria, DRC, Malawi, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Zimbabwe New: Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia Groundnut, soybean, cowpea, climbing bean, pigeon pea, common bean Demonstration plots for smallholder farmers (field day, farmer groups) Literature study and case studies Agricultural productivity by BNF

3 Objectives Assessing impact (quantitative): – Nutrient adequacy of the diet – Nutritional status By quasi-experimental, cross-sectional study Assessing pathways (qualitative): – Via food availability – Via income By focus group discussions

4 Methodology –study area Ghana – km 2, lowland country, on average 26 ºC – 28 % of children < 5 are stunted, 9 % are wasted Districts – Rainfall – Market accessibility

5 Methodology -subjects Selection of N2Africa villages and farmers – Villages in N2Africa project from 2010 – Farmers who received inputs in 2012 Selection of non-N2Africa villages and household – Villages supervised by same extension officer – Random walk method

6 Methodology -subjects Households were included when present: – (N2Africa) farmer – Child of 6 – 59 month old (if >1, randomly selected) – Mother of child (if >1 wife, randomly selected) N2Africa group: N = 129 Non-N2Africa gourp: N = 202

7 Methodology - IDDS Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS) – Proxy measure of nutrient adequacy – 24 hour recalls – 14 Food groups Food groupYes/No Cereals (1)Yes Vitamin A rich vegetables and tubers (>60 RAE) (2) No White roots and tubers (3) No Dark green leafy vegetables (>60 RAE) (4) Yes Other vegetables (5) Yes Vitamin A rich fruits (>60 RAE) (6) No Other fruits (7) Yes Organ meat (8) No Flesh meat (9) No Eggs (10) No Fish (11) Yes Legumes, nuts and seeds (12) Yes Milk and milk products (13) No Oil and fats (14) Yes

8 Methodology - IDDS Role play Open questions Not suggestive ALL ingredients (mixed meals -> ask!) Probe for snacks, fruits and fluids Bought items (check ingredients on market) Analysing: food composition table for categorisation into food groups (vitamin A rich vegetables and fruits)

9 Methodology - anthropometry Measuring nutritional status Height Weight -Children <2: recumbent length -remove shoes, jackets -Children >2: standing height -child <2: with mother -Analysis: 0.7 cm (length child>2) -child >2: stand still

10 Methodology -measurements Analysing nutritional status – Use WHO reference population 2006 – SPSS syntax (anthro+), epi info (low key, free) Stunted<-2 Z-scores height-for-age Severe stunted<-3 Z-scores height-for-age Wasted<-2 Z-scores weight-for-height Severe wasted<-3 Z-scores weight-for-height Underweight<-2 Z-scores weight-for-age Severe Underweight<-3 Z-scores weight-for-age

11 Results Children > 2 years of N2Africa participants have a more nutrient adequate diet Children < 2 years do not differ Individual dietary diversity N2Africa subjects and non-N2Africa subjects N2AfricaNon-N2Africa OutcomeUnitN = 129N = 202 IDDS, out of 14 food groupsMean (SD)5.5 (1.9)5.1 (1.8)* children <2 yearsMean (SD) children 2 – 5 yearsMean (SD)6.1 (1.2)5.6 (1.3)* Minimum dietary diversity (7 groups, IDDS>=4, child< 2) % (N)62.5 (25)56.0 (14) *P<0.05 (Mann-Whitney U test);

12 Results N2Africa subjects consumed more: ‘White roots and tubers’, ‘Other fruits’, ‘Legumes, nuts & seeds’ and ‘Oils & fats’ Consumption of food groups

13 Results N2Africa subjects and non-N2Africa subjects Long-term effect Other causes of malnutrition Nutritional status indicators

14 Conclusions Legume intake higher in N2Africa subjects N2Africa seems to increase the nutrient adequacy of the diet of children > 2 years, but not < 2 years No impact on nutritional status Involving nutrition from the beginning... -Target households with children under 5, adolescent girls - Varieties of legumes high in iron, low in phytate(measure) - Collaborate with other projects (health, WASH) - Nutritional value addition within value chain

15 Questions? n2africa.tv/video/


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