Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR MIGRATION Presented by Karen Blackman."— Presentation transcript:
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR MIGRATION Presented by Karen Blackman
SOTHERN AFRICAN COUNTER-TRAFFICKING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMME [SACTAP] Activities : Prevention of trafficking: Field research and data collection; Eye on Human Trafficking quarterly news bulletin Information dissemination; print, television, radio Protection of Trafficking Victims: Training for Police and Immigration officials Training for NGO and government service providers Toll-Free National Trafficking Helpline in South Africa Assistance and Reintegration to trafficking Victims through: NGO support network – shelters, medical, legal and psychosocial counseling Relocation and/or AVR Reintegration options for victims
What is the International Organization for Migration (IOM)? Leading international organization working globally to manage migration challenges for the benefit of all. Established 1951 to resettle European displaced persons, refugees and migrants, but has evolved with offices and operations in every continent. Currently 125 member states. IOM helps governments and civil society in 7 service areas: i. Assisted voluntary returns ii. Counter-trafficking iii. Migration health iv. Movements of migrants [refugees and others] v. Mass information on migration vi. Technical co-operation on migration [border management] vii. Labour migration IOM’s regional office for Southern Africa is situated in Pretoria
PATTERNS OF TiP IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Based on 6-month research conducted by IOM in Additional interviews with victims of trafficking over the past 5 years
SOUTH AFRICA South Africa to Asia Recruitment Recruiters usually SA national with links SA sex industry and Triad groups; earn US$ 500 per recruit. SA women are recruited in strip clubs or as sex workers in Johannesburg. Offered strip jobs or sex work in Macau, all expenses paid and US$ – Transportation JHB – Hong Kong – Macau SA Nationals enter HK on one-month permit, and must then apply to immigration office to continue on to Macau Sold to organized crime bosses that operate saunas in Macau Exploitation Confiscation of passport. Sign contract in Chinese characters with no translation. Imposition of escalating debt burden. Drugs play a big role in controlling victims. Confinement to flat; no telephone calls. Experience physical abuse; death threats and threats of arrest. Forcibly prostituted in saunas with long working hours – e.g. 16 clients per 12 hour shift. Victims are numbered, colour-coded and ‘priced’ accordingly – e.g. Black [VIP] category = US$ 625 per client.
SOUTH AFRICA South Africa To Israel Recruitment SA national recruit older SA women as au pairs. Offered jobs in Israel, paid US$ 800 per month. Accommodation and air fare included. Transportation JHB – Tel Aviv [EI AI Airlines] Enter Israel with the trafficker on a three month tourist visa. Victims were unaware that they are unable to work on this visa or that it is illegal for foreign nationals to work as au pairs in Israel. Exploitation Confiscation of passport. Not allowed to leave the premises. Long working hours. Payment less than half that was promised, if any. No sick leave. Forced to do all household tasks as well as au pair. Experience verbal abuse.
SOUTH AFRICA South /Africa to Ireland, UK and US Recruitment Young South African women recruited to work as domestic workers, professional employment or for education. Many are students receiving post secondary education. Recruited by West African and South African nationals - often friends of friends or boyfriends. Also recruited by friends already in country of destination. Cases in US – recruitment was advertised in newspapers or flyers. Travel costs covered by traffickers. Victims travel independently. Transportation JHB – London direct JHB – London – Dublin JHB and CPT to various locations in US direct Exploitation Confiscation of passport and travel documentation. Forced to live in unsuitable conditions. Movements controlled, Forced to work long hours doing domestic chores and child care. Experience verbal abuse from ‘employers’. Told to repay debt for travel. Not paid salary or salary much lower than promised. May also experience sexual abuse or harassment from male employers.
REFUGEES TO SOUTH AFRICA Recruitment Traffickers are unemployed men with refugee status in South Africa Traffic women from home counties (e.g. Angola, DRC, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Somalia) Victims are female relatives (aged 25-45), sometimes with children Promised jobs in South Africa Transportation Travel by boat, truck, car, bus, taxis Woman sells everything to finance trip – families may contribute Travel alone or accompanied by recruiter or refugee clan member Borders crossed legally and illegally Hazardous journey to South Africa Exploitation Women apply for asylum in SA Sexual initiation (recruiter or ethnic clan) Street sex work Long working hours and dangerous conditions Minimum nightly earnings Highly dependent of trafficker who will often physically abuse the victim if she doesn’t earn money Small-scale Ethnic clan networks: i. Control women ii. Involved in criminal activity
MOZAMBIQUE TO SOUTH AFRICA Recruitment Traffickers involved in TRAFFICKING AND SMUGGLING of people, drugs and weapons 2 methods of recruitment: i. Active - (making false job offers) ii. Passive - (targeting female taxi passengers en route to SA) Transportation Maputo – Komatipoort – JHB/PRET Maputo – Ponta d’Ouro – JHB/DBN By taxi along main routes to SA Undocumented border crossings Use of safe houses in border region between SA, Mozambique, Swaziland Exploitation Sexual initiation at safe houses In JHB women held captive in safe houses in Soweto and Lenasia Taken to housing compounds on West Rand mines and sold to mineworkers Sold as wives to SA and Mozambican men Live under conditions of domestic servitude Others are sold to brothels in Gauteng and KZN for R1000 – R15,000 Now into upmarket brothels in residential areas Similar trafficking modus operandi does occur between Zimbabwe and South Africa
THAILAND TO SOUTH AFRICA Recruitment Cottage Industry traffickers i. Small-time Thai traffickers ii. “Second-wave” traffickers iii. Brothel owners as traffickers International Organised Crime i. Chinese organised crime ii. Thai organised crime iii. Women recruited are 60%-80% aging sex workers aged Transportation Bangkok – Singapore – JHB Bangkok – Hong Kong – JHB Bangkok – JHB Exploitation SOLD for between R – R or LEASED to brothels by agent Debt bonded for R – R Rotated between brothels and private venues by agents Living conditions at safe houses are tightly controlled by mama san Long working hours Agents manipulate women’s legal status Scale: at least 6 provinces [towns and cites]
CHINA TO SOUTH AFRICA Recruitment Traffickers are Chinese organized crime groups operating in SA Women recruited are poorly educated and unemployed Women are most often recruited in Southern China Women recruited by Traffickers & Smugglers 2 categories of Chinese women in SA Smuggled migrants Trafficked women Women smuggled into SA are retroactively trafficked Transportation Hong Kong- JHB Hong Kong – JHB – Lesotho – JHB Hong Kong – JHB – Swaziland – JHB Hong Kong - JHB – Mozambique – JHB Travel documents and air ticket paid for by agent Exploitation Bonded for repayment of R to R travel debt Private houses/flats or exclusively Asian or seamen’s clubs in Cape Town
EASTERN EUROPE TO SOUTH AFRICA Recruitment Traffickers are Russian mafia & Bulgarian organized crime groups Traffickers own clubs in SA Recruiters are often women connected to Eastern European organized crime in SA Women recruited are often highly educated but poor/jobless, aged Promises of jobs as waitresses, dancers or hostesses Transportation Russia/EE – EU – JHB Russia/EE – EU- JHB – Moz – JHB Russia/EE – EU – JHB – Lesotho – JHB SA Visas fraudulently obtained in Russia. Exploitation Debt-bonded on arrival for between US$ – US$ Women rotated between clubs & private venues. Mix with Thai women Threat of physical violence Family members in Russia/EE may be threatened and assaulted Difficult to exit “system” run by traffickers – extremely difficult to escape
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