Presentation on theme: "Geographical Characteristics of the State The Cultural Mosaic Fellman, and Notes from D.J. Zeigler of Old Dominion."— Presentation transcript:
Geographical Characteristics of the State The Cultural Mosaic Fellman, and Notes from D.J. Zeigler of Old Dominion
Vocab Review State Sovereignty Nation Nation-State Part-nation State Binational State Multinational State Multistate Nation Stateless Nation Nationalism Functional Region MDC LDC Postindustrial Sectors of the Economy –Primary –Secondary –Tertiary
New Vocab Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory: proposes that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed world –Core – Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery countries in the world economy –Semi-Periphery – Places where core & periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery –Periphery – Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core countries in the world economy
Territoriality The modern state is an example of a common human tendency: the need to belong to a larger group that controls its own piece of the earth, its own territory. AP Central: How earth’s surface should be organized This is called territoriality: a cultural strategy that uses power to control area and communicate that control, subjugating inhabitants and acquiring resources.
Shapes of States Compact States –Efficient –Theoretically round –Capital in center –Shortest possible boundaries to defend –Improved communications –Ex. Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Poland, Uruguay
Shapes of States Elongated States –States that are long and narrow –Suffer from poor internal communication –Capital may be isolated –Ex. Chile, Norway, Vietnam, Italy, Gambia
Shapes of States Fragmented States –Several discontinuous pieces of territory –Technically, all states w/off shore islands –Two kinds: separated by water & separated by an intervening state –Exclave – –Ex. Indonesia, USA, Russia, Philippines, Azerbaijan, Angola
Shapes of States Prorupted States –w./large projecting extension –Sometimes natural –Sometimes to gain a resource or advantage, such as to reach water, create a buffer zone –Ex. Thailand, Myanmar, Namibia, Mozambique, Cameroon, Dem. Rep. of Congo
Proruption Examples Dem. Rep. of Congo – when Belgians colonized included Zaire River to Atlantic Ocean Afghanistan – when British ruled, created a 200 mi. proruption to prevent Russia from sharing border with Pakistan Namibia – Germans carved a proruption known as Caprivi Strip to gain access to the Zambezi River
Shapes of States Perforated States –A country that completely surrounds another state –Enclave – the surrounded territory –Ex. Lesotho/South Africa, San Marino & Vatican City/Italy
Enclaves and exclaves An enclave is an area surrounded by a country but not ruled by it. –It can be self-governing (Lesotho) or an exclave of another country. –Can be problematic for the surrounding country. –Pene-enclave—an intrusive piece of territory with a tiny outlet such as Gambia.
Exclave An exclave is part national territory separated from the main body of the country to which it belongs. Example: Kaliningrad, separated from Russia, Cabinda from Angola, Alaska from US Very undesirable if a hostile power holds the intervening territory. –Defense and supplies are problematic. –Inhabitants may develop separatist ideas. –Example: Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Distribution of territory— geographic characteristics of states The more compact the territory, the easier it is to govern. Ideal shape is round or hexagonal. Types of shapes: compact, prorupt, elongated, fragmented and perforated (which contains an enclave). The most damaging territorial distributions affect a country’s cohesiveness and stability: enclaves and exclaves.
Boundaries Physical / Natural Boundaries Geometric Boundaries Cultural Boundaries –Antecedent Boundaries Malaysia/Indonesia Canada/US –Consequent Boundaries Religious Boundaries –between Ireland & N. Ireland Language Boundaries –Subsequent Boundaries Yugoslavia –Superimposed Boundaries Indonesia/Papua New Guinea
Boundaries Physical / Natural Boundaries –Median-Line Principle - approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places. Geometric Boundaries Cultural Boundaries Relict Boundaries – –North & South Vietnam
Fortified Boundaries Great Wall of China Berlin Wall Morocco/Western Sahara – earth berms
Boundary definition – determining the boundary by a treaty-like agreement through actual points, latitude/longitude, or landscape Boundary delimitation – the boundary is drawn on the map Boundary demarcation – the boundary is established by steel posts, concrete pillars, fences, etc. to mark the boundary on the ground
Boundary Disputes Definitional: focus on legal language (e.g. median line of a river: water levels may vary) Locational: definition is not in dispute, the interpretation is; allows mapmakers to delimit boundaries in various ways Operational: neighbors differ over the way the boundary should function (migration, smuggling) (e.g., US/Mexico) Allocational: disputes over rights to natural resources (gas, oil, water) (e.g., Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, in part, due to a dispute over oil rights regarding the Ramallah oil field (mostly in Iraq but straddling into Kuwait)
How states organize their territory for administrative purposes. Governments decide where power is localized so there is a locus of power within the state. Power can be highly concentrated or widely diffused. The two basic ways governments are administered are unitary and federal.
Unitary Countries where the capital is associated with the core, and all power is concentrated in a single place, the capital. Centralized governments, relatively few internal contrasts and a strong sense of national identity, little provincial power. Examples: France, China and newly independent states developed out of former colonies.
Federal Power is shared between a central government and the governments of provinces. Acknowledges and gives some powers to its constituent parts; have strong regional government responsibilities. Examples: the US, Canada, Germany, Australia. --One result of federalism is to lessen public support for something so radical as secession (as in Canada).
Devolution The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government. –Example: the Soviet Union
Regional or asymmetric federalism Gives some authority to subdivisions while keeping central authority in monetary policy, defense, foreign policy, etc. within the capital. –Canada: establishment of the self-governing Nunavut territory –United Kingdom: separate status for Scotland, Wales and Ireland. –Spain: Catalonia, Basque country.
Capital moves The capital may be newly created or moved from another city: Karachi to Islamabad, Istanbul to Ankara. Forward-thrust capital city: One that is purposely placed in the interior of a country to show government’s desire to encourage more uniform development: –Brazil moved its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in the 1950’s.
Nigeria 100 million people speak more than 400 different languages: Hausa – 35 mil Yoruba – 25 mil Ibo – 20 mil Rest spoken by less than 1 mil School instruction in English Lagos: Old Capital Abuja: New Capital
Size: a classification system Very largeOver 1 million square miles Large135,000 to 1 million square miles Medium60,000 to 135,000 square miles Small10,000 to 60,000 square miles Very smallUnder 10, 000 square miles Ministates500 to 5,000 square miles MicrostatesUnder 500 square miles
Core-Periphery Many states have grown to their present shape over a long time, from an original core area, which had good resources and was easily defensible. This area usually contains the most economically developed base, densest population and largest cities, and most developed transportation and the resources that originally supported the economy. Core area often is where the capital is located. It becomes the node of a functional culture region.
The outlying area or periphery is directed toward the core, but friction can exist between the two. Countries which have developed from core areas are usually fairly stable countries. But the absence of a core can weaken a country’s national identity. Countries with competing core areas, such as Spain, can have problems too.