4New VocabWallerstein’s World Systems Theory: proposes that social change in the developing world is inextricably linked to the economic activities of the developed worldCore – Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery countries in the world economySemi-Periphery – Places where core & periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the peripheryPeriphery – Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core countries in the world economy
8TerritorialityThe modern state is an example of a common human tendency: the need to belong to a larger group that controls its own piece of the earth, its own territory.AP Central: How earth’s surface should be organizedThis is called territoriality: a cultural strategy that uses power to control area and communicate that control, subjugating inhabitants and acquiring resources.
9Shapes of States Compact States Efficient Theoretically round Capital in centerShortest possible boundaries to defendImproved communicationsEx. Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Poland, Uruguay
10Shapes of States Elongated States States that are long and narrow Suffer from poor internal communicationCapital may be isolatedEx. Chile, Norway, Vietnam, Italy, Gambia
11Shapes of States Fragmented States Several discontinuous pieces of territoryTechnically, all states w/off shore islandsTwo kinds: separated by water & separated by an intervening stateExclave –Ex. Indonesia, USA, Russia, Philippines, Azerbaijan, Angola
12Shapes of States Prorupted States w./large projecting extension Sometimes naturalSometimes to gain a resource or advantage, such as to reach water, create a buffer zoneEx. Thailand, Myanmar, Namibia, Mozambique, Cameroon, Dem. Rep. of Congo
13Proruption ExamplesDem. Rep. of Congo – when Belgians colonized included Zaire River to Atlantic OceanAfghanistan – when British ruled, created a 200 mi. proruption to prevent Russia from sharing border with PakistanNamibia – Germans carved a proruption known as Caprivi Strip to gain access to the Zambezi River
14Shapes of States Perforated States A country that completely surrounds another stateEnclave – the surrounded territoryEx. Lesotho/South Africa, San Marino & Vatican City/Italy
15Enclaves and exclavesAn enclave is an area surrounded by a country but not ruled by it.It can be self-governing (Lesotho) or an exclave of another country.Can be problematic for the surrounding country.Pene-enclave—an intrusive piece of territory with a tiny outlet such as Gambia.
18ExclaveAn exclave is part national territory separated from the main body of the country to which it belongs.Example: Kaliningrad, separated from Russia, Cabinda from Angola, Alaska from USVery undesirable if a hostile power holds the intervening territory.Defense and supplies are problematic.Inhabitants may develop separatist ideas.Example: Pakistan and Bangladesh.
19Distribution of territory— geographic characteristics of states The more compact the territory, the easier it is to govern.Ideal shape is round or hexagonal.Types of shapes: compact, prorupt, elongated, fragmented and perforated (which contains an enclave).The most damaging territorial distributions affect a country’s cohesiveness and stability: enclaves and exclaves.
27Boundaries Cultural Boundaries Physical / Natural Boundaries Geometric BoundariesCultural BoundariesAntecedent BoundariesMalaysia/IndonesiaCanada/USConsequent BoundariesReligious Boundariesbetween Ireland & N. IrelandLanguage BoundariesSubsequent BoundariesYugoslaviaSuperimposed BoundariesIndonesia/Papua New Guinea
28Boundaries Relict Boundaries – North & South Vietnam Physical / Natural BoundariesMedian-Line Principle - approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places.Geometric BoundariesCultural BoundariesRelict Boundaries –North & South Vietnam
29Fortified Boundaries Great Wall of China Berlin Wall Morocco/Western Sahara – earth berms
31Boundary definition – determining the boundary by a treaty-like agreement through actual points, latitude/longitude, or landscapeBoundary delimitation – the boundary is drawn on the mapBoundary demarcation – the boundary is established by steel posts, concrete pillars, fences, etc. to mark the boundary on the ground
32Boundary DisputesDefinitional: focus on legal language (e.g. median line of a river: water levels may vary)Locational: definition is not in dispute, the interpretation is; allows mapmakers to delimit boundaries in various waysOperational: neighbors differ over the way the boundary should function (migration, smuggling) (e.g., US/Mexico)Allocational: disputes over rights to natural resources (gas, oil, water) (e.g., Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, in part, due to a dispute over oil rights regarding the Ramallah oil field (mostly in Iraq but straddling into Kuwait)
39How states organize their territory for administrative purposes. Governments decide where power is localized so there is a locus of power within the state.Power can be highly concentrated or widely diffused.The two basic ways governments are administered are unitary and federal.
40UnitaryCountries where the capital is associated with the core, and all power is concentrated in a single place, the capital.Centralized governments, relatively few internal contrasts and a strong sense of national identity, little provincial power.Examples: France, China and newly independent states developed out of former colonies.
41FederalPower is shared between a central government and the governments of provinces.Acknowledges and gives some powers to its constituent parts; have strong regional government responsibilities.Examples: the US, Canada, Germany, Australia.--One result of federalism is to lessen public support for something so radical as secession (as in Canada).
43DevolutionThe process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.Example: the Soviet Union
44Regional or asymmetric federalism Gives some authority to subdivisions while keeping central authority in monetary policy, defense, foreign policy, etc. within the capital.Canada: establishment of the self-governing Nunavut territoryUnited Kingdom: separate status for Scotland, Wales and Ireland.Spain: Catalonia, Basque country.
45Capital movesThe capital may be newly created or moved from another city: Karachi to Islamabad, Istanbul to Ankara.Forward-thrust capital city: One that is purposely placed in the interior of a country to show government’s desire to encourage more uniform development:Brazil moved its capital from Rio de Janeiro to Brasilia in the 1950’s.
46Nigeria 100 million people speak more than 400 different languages: Hausa – 35 milYoruba – 25 milIbo – 20 milRest spoken by less than 1 milAbuja: New CapitalLagos: Old CapitalSchool instruction in English
50Size: a classification system Very largeOver 1 million square milesLarge135,000 to 1 million square milesMedium60,000 to 135,000 square milesSmall10,000 to 60,000 square milesVery smallUnder 10, 000 square milesMinistates500 to 5,000 square milesMicrostatesUnder 500 square miles
52Core-PeripheryMany states have grown to their present shape over a long time, from an original core area, which had good resources and was easily defensible.This area usually contains the most economically developed base, densest population and largest cities, and most developed transportation and the resources that originally supported the economy.Core area often is where the capital is located. It becomes the node of a functional culture region.
53The outlying area or periphery is directed toward the core, but friction can exist between the two. Countries which have developed from core areas are usually fairly stable countries.But the absence of a core can weaken a country’s national identity.Countries with competing core areas, such as Spain, can have problems too.